No mask required if "with distance and no conversation" even indoors Government announces standards
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On the other hand, if the distance cannot be secured, such as on a commuter train, it is recommended to wear it even if there is no conversation.
A new government policy has been announced that it is not necessary to wear a mask indoors if there is no conversation at a distance. 20th, Masa ... → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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Commuter train(Tsukin train)Commuting Train(Tsukindensha) is a large cityCity center(CBD)WhenSuburbMake a connection withCommuting-Commuting to schoolIs mainly operated for the purpose of being used for列車And the line. In English, it is called "Regional rail Regional rail" or "commuter rail commuter rail".Commuter trainSometimes the translation of is used. Commuter trains carry a large number of residents who travel daily between work and home.
Regional railway services around metropolitan areas have been gaining worldwide attention in recent years. The background is road congestionFossil fuelDependence onExhaust gasThere is a sense of crisis about raising awareness of environmental issues such as the release of fuel, and increasing costs for owning, parking, passing, and fueling private cars.
This section describes those that directly connect to existing long-distance railway lines.subway-monorail-New transportation system such asUrban high speed train,Light RailSee the relevant item for details.
Commuter trains in each country
In the United States,Private railwayIs, as a rule, specialized in freight,New York City Subway,Chicago L,Metra,SEPTAMany are managed in a way that involves local governments. In addition, as a city that is driven frequently,Duffel Bag,Philadelphiaand so on. On the other hand, although there are routes, it specializes almost exclusively in rush transportationSeattle OfLine likeIn this way, the number will be extremely small except during commuting hours,Local lineUnexpected commuter rail is often found in the United States, which has low reliance on public transportation.
For cities with a large network of commuter trains operating frequently outside Europe, Asia, North America and North Africa,Australia OfSydney,Melbourne,South Africa OfJohannesburg,Cape Town,Durban,Argentine Ofブ エ ノ ス ア イ レ ス,Brazil OfSao Paulo,Rio de JaneiroThere is.
Designed and manufactured for commutingRailway carIs usually optimized for mass transit of passengers. While a certain amount of comfortable seating and baggage space is secured, amenity facilities for long-distance trains are omitted, and many vehicles are designed to secure more standing seats for one person than to increase seats. Commuter trains generally run a few kilometers to tens of kilometers, and speeds range from 55 km/h to over 100 km/h. Passenger car2 storiesSome of them are 1-80 passengers per car in a single-story building, and 110-2 passengers in a two-story building ("seatSee also section).
Difference from other passenger cars
Generally, commuter trainsDedicated trackDesigned to run on top of.The differences from trams, light rails, or subways that connect the city center are as follows.
- The vehicle is larger.
- The frequency of trains is low compared to transportation in the city.
- Rather than running at regular intervals so that you can get on without waiting, you arrive at the station at a specific time according to the timetable.
- It runs in areas with relatively low population density, such as the suburbs.
- IntercityIntercity honor trains andfreight trainShare the trajectory with.
By running on the railway lines that connect various areas such as limited express and freight trains, the work of constructing a new line for commuting from 1 can be saved, and the cost of building a commuter train network can be dramatically reduced. However, in order to avoid the adverse effects of delays on long-distance trains, dedicated tracks are often used for commuter trains. Hong KongMTRTotetsu LineIn Japan and JR, there are also cases where a train with a capacity similar to that of a subway (300 or more seats per seat and few seats) runs at the same frequency as a subway while sharing a line with long-distance trains. Tokyo areaChuo Line RapidIs a typical example, and express trains are in operation while high-speed trains are frequently operated.
Even in the case of tracks exclusively for commuter trains,GaugeIn most cases, the standard gauge of each country is adopted. ThereforeNarrow gaugeThe same applies to commuter trains in countries and regions that have adopted (Japan,Switzerland,IndiaOrAustraliaPart of).
Fusion with subway and urban high-speed railway
Subway and commuter trainMutual accessThere are also examples in each country where the commuter train system has its own underground line.In such a system, trains run underground in dense urban areas and residential areas, and go to the ground when they reach the less dense suburbs.MadridSuburban trainCercanias,DublinSuburban train (DART),Paris OfRER,BerlinSuch as in Germany and SwitzerlandS-burn,SydneySuburban trainCity railThere are underground lines in such places.Also for JR in JapanJoban Line,Chuo/Sobu LineMutual access to the subway, which can be seen inYokosuka/Sobu Rapid Line,JR Tozai LineThere is an example of setting up an underground line like this.
In countries with high population density such as Europe and Asia, there are some cases where the distinction between intercity/long-distance trains and commuter trains is ambiguous due to the short distances between cities. For example, intercity cities in Belgium and the Netherlands carry many commuters with distances, speeds, and train facilities similar to those of commuter trains in countries with short driving distances and large areas.
Subway orUrban high speed trainAs a result of the progress of the extension, depending on the route, the ground section and the suburban section are long, and many routes have the function of the commuting route itself.For example, TokyoShanghai,SeoulIn such cases, the distance per subway line is long, and some lines have the first and last stations in the suburbs (Tokyo Metro Tozai Line,Tokyo Metro Yurakucho LineEtc.), so the subway looks like a commuter train.
On the other hand, in the Paris subway, the line is limited to the city, so the distance per line is short, and it is clearly distinguished from the commuter train RER.America,CanadaUnlike the subway and light rail, many commuter trains operate only during peak hours, and most of the lines are not electrified, so they are clearly distinguished from the subway and light rail.
Commuter trains are generally composed of multiple cars, and each car or multiple cars are equipped with a motor.Power distribution methodIn a self-propelled passenger car ofCabIs a train in both directions. Under the passenger car, depending on the country or regiondiesel enginePiled upRailcarAndThird rail,Overhead wireTake electricity fromElectric trainIs used. In order to enable frequent operation, cabs are often provided at both ends of the formation to allow reciprocating operation.
Locomotive(Motor vehicleIn some cases) is driving the commuter train. This is the case when the same train is used for both long-distance intercity (long-distance passenger train) and commuting for effective use of management resources. In this case, motor cars are attached to both ends of the train, or a driver's seat is installed at the end of the passenger car to operate the locomotive on the other side.Push-pull methodMay be taken.
Commuter trains can take as little as an hour to two hours, depending on the country, so train designers can pack as many passengers as possible.seatTo design.
A typical example is a long seat with long bench-shaped seats lined up in a row on the right and left sides of the train.This seat is not comfortable because the shoulders of the passengers who sit on it touch each other, but there is plenty of space for people to stand in the center of the train, and getting on and off is quick.
On the other hand, on routes with plenty of congestion, many commuter trains use box seats or semi-cross seats with more seats so that they can travel long distances or sit as many as one person.Box seats without headrests are often used on commuter trains in Europe.
Double-decker vehicles are not uncommon in RER, which has a large vehicle limit.As a characteristic of American commuter trains, the central part is a stairwellconductorImprove the ticket inspection of "Gallery carThere is a passenger car called.This is a two-story building, and we aim to increase the seating capacity by increasing the number of seats.In some cases, the aisle is minimized and 2 + 2 seats are used, but there are also drawbacks such as not wanting to sit in the center of the three seats.
So that you can sit according to the capacity with a long seatJR EastThen.209 seriesHas a dented seat surface.Bucket seatIs adopted.Where the seat width of long seats was mainly 430 mm, the width of 450 mm was expanded by 209 series trains from the voice that "seats are narrow" by improving the physique of Japanese people.06 series trainAdopted in.the 2000sWhen you enter JapanJR East E233 series-Tokyu 6000 series-Tokyo Metro 10000 seriesThe width was set to 460 mm.Some Kansai private railways use a width of 470 mm... EspeciallyKinki Nippon RailwayHas a 485mm vehicle.
Convertible cross seats are used mainly in the Nagoya and Kinki regions in Japan, while in the Tokyo metropolitan area.Keikyu CorporationSpecial charges are required except forLiner trainLimited to.As a rare exampleLimited express vehicleAs a result of diverting the reclining seat as it is, there is also an example of adopting a reclining seat at no special charge (KubikinoSuch).
Even in Japan, the method of increasing the number of seats by making it a two-story buildingJR East 215 seriesSeen at JR East, ordinary trains of JR EastGreen carHowever, in Japan, there were many problems that the number of passengers getting on and off at each station was too large and caused delays.Standard VehiclesDid not become popular.
Other "commuter trains"
- There are some types of trains in Japan that are prefixed with "commuting."
- If you add "commuting" to the head of the train type, the train will stop at a different stop station.
- Generally, there are many stop stations because it operates during a time when there are many users, but there are also some that do not.
- →Train type # Commuter typechecking ...
- South KoreaOne of the train types.Commuter train (Korea)checking ...
- 2006/11UntilTaiwanOne of the train types that once existed in. The official name isCommuting Train.Revival issueandCommuter train (Taiwan)-Section carchecking ...
- ^ As a general rule, during the morning rush hour, only trains heading to the city center and during the evening rush hour are operated from the city center to the suburbs.
- ^ Tatsuya Edakubo (April 2019, 4). “The commuter train has changed to Heisei! From now on, "natural" seats and equipment?". Vehicle newsMedia Vague. As of April 2019, 4originalMore archives.2019/4/25Browse.
- Train car seats
- Environment issues
- national railroad-E-den -Nicknames for commuter trains in the Tokyo area (metropolitan area) of the Japanese National Railways (JNR) and East Japan Railway (JR East)
- City train -A nickname for a commuter train in a local metropolitan area operated by the National Railways
- Cercanias -Spain
- RER -French
- S-burn -German speaking
- Electricha -Former Soviet countries
- Commuter line -Indonesia
- Helsinki suburban train -Finland
- Mumbai Suburban Railway -India
- City rail -Australia
- Metro rail -South Africa
- Commuter train (Taiwan),Section car - Taiwan
- Commuter train (Korea),Wide area electric railway,Metropolitan Electric Railway -South Korea
- Spanish train bombing
- London simultaneous bombing
- Mumbai Train Bombing Case