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😷 | Macau, the number of inbound passengers in April 2022 is about 4 ... Increased by 60.7% from the previous month and decreased by 15.2% from the previous year


Photo Photo of Senado Square, a World Heritage Site, one of Macau's famous tourist spots (Source) = October 2020, 10 Photographed by Japanese newspaper

Macau, the number of inbound passengers in April 2022 is about 4 ... 60.7% increase from the previous month, 15.2% decrease from the previous year

 
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Currently, entry into Macau from countries and regions other than mainland China is severely restricted.
 

On July 5, the Macau Government Statistical Research Bureau released statistics on the number of foreign visitors to Macau (inbound passengers) in June of this year (20). → Continue reading

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Mainland China

Mainland China(Chugokoku,English: China proper) IsChugoku OfregionHistorically inHan peopleMajorityPeopleThe areaQing DynastyAn expression used in comparison with other regions (outside China) included in China thereafter.

Mainland China has an area of ​​approximately 390 millionkm2To be[1] [2],East Turkestan(新疆),Tibet,Manchuria(Northeastern China),MongoliaIs historically ChineseInland-NativeIt is considered to be a region of "outside China" that is not considered to be.

Name

ChineseThen "Chinese landOr “Kankyo” “Kanji” etc.JapanThen.China[Note 1],China Headquarters[3]It was called (Shinahonbu). JapaneseHumanitiesso"China"(KatakanaNotation) is almost the same as the final appearance of the historical domain.

Mainland China is largely the vast territory of outer China to the northGreat wallIs partitioned by[4][5],Qing DynastyEntering the age ofCentral governmentEighteen "installed byprovinceWas managed by[Note 2].. Therefore, from the Qing dynastyRepublic of ChinaIn the early days (first in the end of Qing Dynasty)InlandEighteen provincesThe expression (nichijuhashosho) was used.

Origin of concept

Corresponds to the concept of "Mainland China"EnglishWhen did expressions such as "China proper" appear?WesternIt's not clear if they started to be used in.米 国Chinese expertHarry hardingAccording to the example1827It can be traced back to (Harding, 1993). But before that,1795ToWilliam winter bosumMentions this concept in his book (Winterbotham, 1795, pp.35-37).Qing DynastyIn discussing the Chinese Empire, Win Turbo Sam refers to this as China proper,TatarRegion (Chinese Tartary, Manchuria),Tribute countryIs divided into three. Winter Turbo SamDu Aldo[Note 3],Grocie[Note 4]According to the theory of "China"I thought it came from. Win turbo Sam said,China(China) is originally (properly) ... 18 degrees north-south latitude and a little narrower east-west longitude."

However, while introducing the term Mainland China, Win Turbo Sam1662AbandonedLightThe description is based on the 15 ministry system. Compared with Ming's 15 provinces, Win Turbo Sam has the province name of Kiang-nan, but this area was called South Jilin in the Ming era and was renamed to Gangnam.Manchu tribeThe next year when I beat Ming1645It was. This 15 ministry system1662から1667It was reorganized into an 18-ministerial system. Win Turbo Sam to explain mainland China (China Proper), assuming 15 provincesJiangnanIt means that this concept is1645から1662It shows that it appeared in the period of.

1795Even before the publication of Win Turbo Sam, there was an example where the concept of mainland China (China Proper) was used,1790Magazine "The Gentleman's Magazine],1749Magazine "The Monthly Review] Also has an example[Note 5].

19st centurySays that the term "China proper" isEuropeIt will also be used when communicating in the language. For example, Kiyoshi英国Ambassador dispatched toSokizawaIt is,1887Uses this term in an article published in English[6].

Recognition and controversy in China

The concept of “Mainland China” isclearBrought in the late period,LaterLike 18provinceThe area governed byInlandEighteen provinces" have come to be expressed.

Also, from the end of the Qing dynastyRepublic of ChinaIn the early period (first of the Qing Dynasty),Revolutionary,Chinese Communist PartyThis concept was accepted by the parties concerned and the term "China headquarters" came to be used. For example,Zhou Yongof"(Chinese version』(1903) Chapter XNUMX, "Revolutionary Necropsy Race"[7],Grandchildof"Business plan』(1921[Note 7],Chinese Communist PartySecond national convention(1922) "Convention Declaration"[8]And "Resolution on "Imperialism and China and the Communist Party of China""[9]The expression "China headquarters" was used in such cases. In the historical description published in Taiwan,Kashiwa Yangof"(Chinese version』(1979),(Chinese versionLike these sentences,Second World WarThe expression "China headquarters" may also be used later.

However, after thatChinese peopleWhen the concept spread,People's Republic of ChinaIn, "Chinese Headquarters" has become an excluded expression. In the 1950s,Ch'ien MuSaid in the "Ming Dynasty", the fourth course of "The Political Gains and Losses of China", "China headquarters" was "created by foreign powers intentionally confusing the pros and cons of things as an excuse for aggression."

Today, Mainland China is a controversial concept in China. This is because the current official paradigm does not allow the core and peripheral regions of China to be compared. StandardChineseIsMandarinThere is no word widely used as an expression equivalent to “China Proper”.

People's Republic of ChinaInTaiwanThe official policy is that territories such as China, Xinjiang, and Tibet are an integral part of China, and the official documents issued by the government go further, saying that these regions have always been so. Is claimed. The concept of mainland China (China proper) is excluded because it is independent (SeparatismThis is because the justification for () is given as a basis. On the other hand, those who support the independence of Taiwan, Tibet and Uighur make clear the distinction between “China Mainland” as a culture-based nation and “China” as a political entity. Insist that it should. From this point of view, mainland China (China Proper) is the original China, and the other regions are considered to be colonies acquired by China, not part of China.

The term "China Proper" is not so controversial when it is interpreted in terms of the historical and cultural anthropological core regions of the Chinese people. In general, this concept is flexible and its definition often changes depending on the context. Regions that are either included or excluded will also affect the modern interpretation of mainland China.

範 囲

There are no definite boundaries for mainland China. This term expresses the contrast between the core region and the frontier from various perspectives such as historical, administrative, cultural, and linguistic.

Historical perspective

One way to capture the spread of mainland China isHan peopleBuilt bydynastyIt is to examine the area. Chinese civilization is a core regionZhongyuanIt conquered and assimilated the peoples around it, and, conversely, it was conquered and affected, and has spread to the outside for thousands of years. Part of the successive dynasties, especiallyIs expansionist,Central AsiaAlthough the power has grown,Jin,likeNorth China PlainTheNortheast asiaOr to counter Central AsiaNomadSometimes it was handed over to the forces.

Han peopleIs the last dynasty built byLightIs also the penultimate dynasty that ruled China.Ming isFusei ambassador(Fuseishi) 13 and 2 direct slaves under the direct control of the emperor, and a total of 15 administrative units were established to govern.Manchu tribeBuiltclearAfter the conquest of Ming, this system was maintained in the areas under Ming control, but in other areas controlled by Qing,Manchuria,Mongolia,新疆,TibetDid not extend this system to. Manchuria is specially dominated as the home of the Manchurian people, and in Mongolia and Tibet the native lords (Toast) And the like through indirect control. After that, there was some restructuring,clearRuled mainland China in a system of XNUMX provinces (XNUMX provinces). It was within these eighteen provinces that the early Western literature referred to it as "Mainland China."

There are some differences in detail between the Ming Dynasty system and the XNUMX provinces of Qing. For example,ManchuriaPart of (Liaodong,Ryosai) Is incorporated into Ming TerritoryShandongThe Manchus who first conquered the area before conquering Ming separated it from the mainland of China, and after the reunification of China by Qing, the deputy city of Fengtian I came to put it under the administrative system different from. On the other hand, it was the newly acquired territory of QingTaiwanIs part of mainland ChinaFujian ProvinceWas incorporated into. Eastern Tibet[Note 8]Become part ofcamEasternSichuan ProvinceWas incorporated into the currentMyanmarPart of the northYunnanWas incorporated into.

At the end of the Qing period, there was a move to extend the provincial system outside mainland China. From the perspective of national defense against powers, Taiwan will be an independent province separate from Fujian Province.1885To "Fujian Taiwan Province" (Taiwan Province) Was established, but laterSino-Japanese warAs a result of1895 OfShimonoseki TreatyCeded to Japan by.1884ToXinjiangIs provided,1907In Manchuria to Fengtian (laterLiaoning),Jilin Province,Heilongjiang3 provinces were set up. In Tibet, because of the suppression of riots against Christian missionariesGovernor Sichuan OfZhao FengAdvances the army,Gunden ButtonPushing the resistance ofXikang,West MinistryI tried to put. There were proposals to establish a provincial system in Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia, but they were not implemented, and these regions1912Until the end of the Qing Dynasty, it was outside the Chinese provincial system.

Eighteen provinces of the Qing dynasty
Initial "XNUMX provinces"
Ministry added at the end of Qing

Some of the revolutionaries of the end of the Qing DynastyManchu tribeSome people used the flag with eighteen stars (the eighteenth-star flag), aiming to establish a nation independent of the empire in the region of eighteen provinces, but replaced the empire with a new republic. Some people even used the Article 18 flag (five-colored flag). Emperor was newly born in the declaration of abdication when Qing was destroyedRepublic of ChinaThe latter idea is the idea of ​​this new republicFive Family RepublicansIt became ". The "five families" referred to here areHan,Manchu tribe,Mongolian, Hui (currentHuinotUighurな ど新疆Of the Islamic peoples of),TibetanThat is. The flag of Article 5 becomes the national flag (1912 - 1928), Republic of China contains all five regions handed over from QingSingle nationWas said to be.1949Was established inPeople's Republic of ChinaAlso makes essentially the same territorial claims, with the only exception beingMongoliaThe point is that they have approved the independence of. As a result, the concept of mainland China has become a bad idea for China.

The eighteen provinces of the Qing dynasty still exist, but the boundaries have changed significantly.北京市天津市 TheHebei Province(Slaveから1928Renamed to),Shanghai TheJiangsuFromNingxia Hui Autonomous Region TheGansuFromHainan TheGuangdongFromChongqing TheSichuan ProvinceLeft each.GuangxiIs the currentGuangxi Zhuang Autonomous RegionWas changed to. Although the ministries established at the end of the Qing period are mostly maintained,XinjiangUnder the People's Republic of ChinaXinjiang Uygur Autonomous RegionThe borders of the three northeastern provinces have been changed, and Fengtian Province has been renamed Liaoning Province.

It can be argued that Tibet, Inner Mongolia, and Outer Mongolia were outside the administrative system of mainland China when Qing died, and that Tibet and Outer Mongolia were effectively separated from the territory of China. (For details, seeMongolia,TibetSee). The People's Republic of China, which succeeded Qing, and the government of the People's Republic of China, sought to abstain from this separation to protect their territory. The Republic of China treats Inner Mongolia according to mainland China, and the People's Republic of China later treats Inner Mongolia as a whole.Inner MongoliaAnd Eastern TibetAmdocamEastern and northern part of China by the Republic of ChinaQinghai Province,XikangIt was reorganized (later merged with Sichuan Province), and the People's Republic of China has inherited it. Eventually under the rule of the Dalai Lama throughout the Republic of ChinaWu TsangcamEven in the west,1959 OfTibetan upheavalIn response toThe Dalai Lama XIVEscaped to India, the People's Republic of ChinaGunden Button) Was abolished, and after being governed by the Nishizono Autonomous Ward Committee,1965ToTibet Autonomous RegionWas established. Meanwhile, Outer Mongolia received assistance from the Soviet Union.1920Independent.1961, The Mongolia accession passed the Security Council without voting by the Republic of China, which had the abstention from the United States and the representation of China (October 10),People's Republic of MongoliaHas joined the United Nations.

Ethnic perspective

Mainland China oftenHan peopleIs a concept associated with. The Han people are the largest ethnic group in China, and as an important element in the core of their ethnicityChineseThere is.

However, the distribution of Han people in modern times does not match the territory of the eighteen provinces of the Qing era. In southwestern China, for exampleYunnan,Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,GuizhouIs for generations including MingHan peopledynastyIt was included in the XNUMX provinces of the Qing dynasty. However, in these areas,Zhuang,Miao,Pui such asHan peopleOther ethnic groups are growing in population. On the other hand, "KantoAs a result of the expansion of the Han population that has been encouraged ever since, almost all areas of Manchuria (Northeast China), most of Inner Mongolia, many areas of Xinjiang, and some areas scattered in Tibet, have been The race is in the majority.

As a raceHan peopleIt is,ChineseNot synonymous with speaker. Even in Chinese ethnic groups that are not Han,Hui,Manchu tribe,Tujia,ShenMost of them basically speak only Chinese, but they do not consider themselves as Han Chinese. Chinese itself is also complicated and should be regarded as a family of related languages ​​rather than being a single language if classification is attempted based on mutual communication.

Incidentally,Taiwan population98% of these are officially classified as Han[10], For the most partFirst ResidentHas a lineage. In any case, whether Taiwan should be considered part of mainland China or part of China is itself a controversial subject. Detail is,Taiwan historyPlease refer to.

Related item

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ For exampleTokyo Imperial UniversityDepartment of literatureIn the Department of Oriental History, at the beginning of the establishment,China-(Chinese version-Western Region-KoreaWas divided.
  2. ^ On the other hand, outside China,ManchurianManchuria, the hometown ofEight BannersIt is managed by the generals of Shogun (Shengjing general, Jilin general, Heilongjiang general), and in areas other than ManchuriaRyoinUnder the jurisdiction ofChinese emperorThe method of entrusting the autonomy of the princes of each ethnic group to be taken was taken. But,UprisingDue to the increasing population of the Chinese and Han people, East Turkistan and Manchuria wereXinjiangMukden-Jilin Province-Heilongjiang).
  3. ^ Jean-Baptiste du Aldo(1674 - 1743).French OfJesuitsA monk,AsiaAlthough I did not go to, I compiled a report letter of the Jesuit monks and based on it1735Published the delicate "Sina Emperor Magazine".
  4. ^ Jean-Baptiste Grocie (1743 - 1823). A French Jesuit monk, who never went to Asia,Le Roux Deshauterayes(1724 - 1795) Together with “Chinese History (l'Histoire générale de la Chine) 』Was compiled.
  5. ^ Copyright has disappeared in both cases,Google BooksYou can see the full text at.
  6. ^ Outer MongoliaHas been consistent since the founding of the Republic of ChinaSovereigntyWas insisted,Imperial Russia・After repeated Soviet political intervention1924ToPeople's Republic of Mongolia(Mongolia)as well asTuva People's Republic(Tuva) As an independent state. But both countriesNational approvalAs of 1944, there is only one Soviet Union, and Mongolia's independence1945 OfSino-Soviet Friendship Alliance TreatyIt was finally recognized internationally by the conclusion. Tuva was annexed to the Soviet Union in October 1944.
  7. ^ In English1920Announced inThe International Development of ChinaThe next year, Lin Yun,HorseTranslated into Chinese and published with Sunbun's self-introduction.
  8. ^ So-called"Great Tibet" as a geographic termHowever, in order to avoid misunderstanding, it is expressed as “East Tibet”.

Source

References in English

  • Du Halde, Jean-Baptiste (1736). The General History of China.Containing a geographical, historical, chronological, political and physical description of the empire of China, Chinese-Tartary, Corea and Thibet..., London: J. Watts.
  • Grosier (1788). A General Description of China.Containing the topography of the fifteen provinces which compose this vast empire, that of Tartary, the isles, and other tributary countries..., London: GGJ and J. Robinson.
  • Winterbotham, William (1795). An Historical, Geographical, and Philosophical View of the Chinese Empire ..., London: Printed for, and sold by the editor; J. Ridgway; and W. Button.(pp.35-37: General Description of the Chinese Empire → China Proper→ 1. Origin of its Name, 2. Extent, Boundaries, & c.)
  • Darby, William (1827). Darby's Universal Gazetteer, or, A New Geographical Dictionary. ... Illustrated by a ... Map of the United States (p.154) ,. Philadelphia: Bennett and Walton.
  • Harding, Harry (1993). "The Concept of'Greater China': Themes, Variations, and Reservations", in The China Quarterly, 1993, pp.660-686.

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