Photo Sagamihara City Hall
[New Corona] Infected 414 people in Sagamihara, updated record high Cluster in kindergarten and university athletic club
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Five positives were found at the kindergarten in Minami Ward, including five children and staff, and seven positives were found at the sports club of the university that is active in the city, and the city recognized them as clusters (groups of infected people).
On the 24th, 10 men and women under the age of 90 to 414s were newly confirmed to be infected with the new coronavirus infection in Sagamihara City. → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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|Name||Date of establishment||Reason for installation|
|Minami Ward (Sapporo City)||1972/(47)May 4||Government-designated cityMigration|
|Minami Ward (Saitama City)||2003/(15) April 4||Transition to a designated city|
|Minami Ward (Yokohama City)||1943/(18)May 12||Naka-kuSeparated from|
|Minami Ward (Sagamihara City)||2010/(22) April 4||Transition to a designated city|
|Minami Ward (Niigata City)||2007/(19) April 4||Transition to a designated city|
|Minami Ward (Hamamatsu City)||2007/(19) April 4||Transition to a designated city|
|Minami Ward (Nagoya City)||1908/(Meiji 41) June 4||Ward system enforcement|
|Minami Ward (Kyoto City)||1955/(30)May 9||Shimogyo WardSeparated from|
|Minami Ward (Sakai City)||2006/(18) April 4||Transition to a designated city|
|Minami Ward (Okayama City)||2009/(21) April 4||Transition to a designated city|
|Minami Ward (Hiroshima City)||1980/(Showa 55) January 4||Transition to a designated city|
|Minami Ward (Fukuoka City)||1972/(Showa 47) January 4||Transition to a designated city|
|Minami Ward (Kumamoto City)||2012/(24) April 4||Transition to a designated city|
An administrative district that once existed in Japan.
|Name||The city you belonged to||Types||Installation period||Reason for abolition|
|Minami Ward (Osaka City)||Osaka||Administrative district||1889/(22th year of Meiji)May 4 - 1989/(XNUMX)May 2||Higashi WardWithmerger|
- Nam-gu (Busan Metropolitan City) - BusanWard in.
- Nam-gu (Daegu Metropolitan City) - Daegu Metropolitan CityWard in.
- Nam-gu (Gwangju Metropolitan City) - GwangjuWard in.
- Nam-gu (Ulsan Metropolitan City) - Ulsan Metropolitan CityWard in.
- Nam-gu (Pohang City) - Gyeongsangbuk-doPohang CityWard in.
Minami Ward / South(Japanese reading: Naku,pinyin: nánqū）
- South District (Taichung City) - Taichung CityOne of the city districts of.
- South District (Tainan City) - Tainan CityOne of the city districts of.
- - Mie CityOne of the city districts of.
People's Republic of China
Club activities(Club Katsudoo, club activity), orExtracurricular activities(Bukkado, extracurricular activity),Circle activityAt (Circle Katsudo), friends with common hobbies and interests gathered together.GroupActivities in Japan.In schoolIn addition, there are many activities within the company and as a civic circle.
There are various types of club activities, club activities, and club activities, and the types of activities are different for each school/group. Depending on the activity content, it is often roughly divided into "exercise (physical education)" and "cultural". The sports department is called the sports department (or the physical education department), and the culture department is called the culture department.
In school education activitiesJapanIn some cases, there is a strict definition such as "club activity" (described later). “Club activity” is also a term used in the curriculum guidelines, but it disappeared in 2002 when middle schools and in high schools revised in 2003.
Usually in Japan, elementary school,Valais, SwitzerlandorUniversityAnd universityJunior collegeIn many cases, the same club activities are carried out until graduation (in some cases, if the school allows participation in multiple club activities, one person may participate in multiple club activities). But,AmericaThen often belong to different club activities depending on the season.. I rarely belong to the same club all year round, so I can enjoy various sports and cultural experiences.
WesternCountries andAustralia-New ZealandIn such cases, it is not a systematic club activity on a school-by-school basis, but a local activity.Club teamOften belong to.Olympic,サ ッ カ ーThe reason why we produce first-class players is because there are local club teams, and there are also professional players among them, so we can practice at a high level.Japan also,サ ッ カ ーIn some competitions, not club activitiesYouth teamYou can see examples that belong to.
Socialist countryIn order to raise the national prestige, however, there were many cases in which athletes were trained by the national government.
OECD Country Activity Time Survey (TALIS)
OECDIn the 2013 Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS), 34 countries participated, and compared to the participating countries, Japan has shorter class hours, other than academic education such as meetings, office hours, and extracurricular activities. Turned out to be a long time..Extracurricular activities such as club activities averaged 2.1 hours in participating countries, while Japan was 7.7 hours, the longest in participating countries...Sweden had a minimum of 0.4 hours.
|Total||Lesson||Class preparation||Staff meeting *||Scoring correction||Student guidance||School management||Office work||Contact and cooperation with parents||Extracurricular activities (club activities, etc.)||Other business|
|Participating country average||38.3||19.3||7.1||2.9||4.9||2.2||1.6||2.9||1.6||2.1||2|
2018/In the 3rd TALIS survey, 48 countries participated, and Japan has the longest average working hours, staff meetings, and office hours per week in junior high school, and extracurricular activities (club activities, etc.) are also average in the participating countries. Japan was the longest participating country with 1 hours, compared to 1.9 hours...The shortest extracurricular activity was 0.4 hours in Sweden and Finland.
|Total||Lesson||Class preparation||Staff meeting||Scoring correction||Student guidance||School management||Office work||Professional development||Contact and cooperation with parents||Extracurricular activities (club activities, etc.)||Other business|
|Participating country average||38.3||20.3||6.8||2.8||4.5||2.4||1.6||2.7||2||1.6||1.9||2.1|
* In order of total working hours.
Japanese school education club activities
There is a definition in "club activity" of Japanese school education,Course of Study"In club activities, as a part of school education activities, students with similar interest who are interested in sports, culture, and scholarship, etc.Voluntary and voluntary activities'As for the contents of the curriculum, it is said that "they are familiar with sports, culture and science, etc., and contribute to the improvement of motivation for learning, a sense of responsibility, and the development of a sense of solidarity. Be careful so that they are related."Is instructed.
Club activities are elementary school, junior high school, high school, university,Junior college-College of technology-Vocational schoolIs a commonly used name inClub activitiesAbbreviated as (Bukatsu).
At schoolunit,Club,Love partyIt is related to a system that divides groups into groups, such as, and in a narrow sense, it refers to the activities of a group called a club. In this case, at the time of new establishment, some schools may act as a lovers' club or club, and the system may be promoted to a club after a certain amount of activity record is evaluated. In this case, by being promoted to the club, for example, the operating expenses of the club will be recognized as a budget by the student council.
On the other hand, in a broad sense, it refers to the activities of all organizations that carry out activities such as clubs, and it is customary that the scope is defined by each school.
Of 2007TochigiThe enrollment rate in junior high school and high school is 90.8%, the sports club is 73.6%, and the culture club is 17.2%. According to statistics, the admission rate of the Ministry of Culture has been increasing year by year, and the choice of male students has expanded compared to the past, which has led to an increase..
As of 2013,NaganoThen, the participation rate of the sports club itself is 7.7% lower than the national average. On the other hand, the fact that most schools practice mornings throughout the year is said to be higher than in other prefectures... An exercise (so-called “morning training”) is conducted from early morning to secure time for club practice, and some students devote themselves to regular activity classes, such as naps, to practice club activities, compete, and perform..
Originally, entering club activities was not "compulsory",Voluntary and voluntary participationHowever, most junior high schools and high schools do not follow the guidelines of the Ministry of Education, and recommend that they belong to some club activities (without the consent of their parents).Students who do not belong to club activities and leave school as soon as the regular lessons on the day are overReturn home departmentThere is a custom that is called.
In addition, I often refer to members who are "enrolled but not participating in the club",Ghost memberCalled.Behind the appearance of ghost members, for example, there is no desired part, and for the purpose of securing the results of "filling in the survey form (internal report) / resume" (the fact that you are participating in club activities) in view of the appearance. In essence, the so-called "do not participate in club activities and leave school immediately"Return home departmentIt is a style called.
Depending on the club activity, for reasons such as preventing excellent students from being pulled out,Transfer(Transfer) There may be cases where activities are prohibited or restricted (such as participation in competitions) for a certain period of time (for example, if there is a reason that attendance at the original school cannot be continued, or if you join the department at the original school). If you have not, you may be allowed to participate in special cases). As wellPast studentHowever, due to physique and other reasons, the period of activity may be limited to a period shorter than the minimum training period of the school.
In addition, there are many advisors and students who feel burdened with club activities.A survey conducted by Morinaga & Co., Ltd. targeting teachers of club activitiesAccording to the report, more than 7% of teachers answered that they "feel burdened with club activities"...The burden of club activities is not only on teachers but also on students.Fact-finding survey on sports club activities of the Japan Sports Agency ”aggregation statusAccording to the report, when asked "worries about club activities and school life" to students attending public junior high schools belonging to the athletic club, "the hours and days of club activities are long" (19.9%) was the most common.Next, responses such as "compatibility with schoolwork" (16.3%) and "dullness" (16.0%) collected votes..
Athletic and cultural
Club activities, club activities, and club activities are divided into athletic and cultural activities. In Japan, it is said that athletic club activities were first created.
- Motor system
- It is generally important for the athletic system to win a competitive match and achieve higher results. There are many places in Japan that engage in spiritual activities in the hope that human formation will take place through sports. Recently, some departments emphasize the spirituality while incorporating scientific methods into the practice menu to reduce the activity time and improve the effect.
- Sports club activities under school management areAs a part of school education activities, students of similar interest who are interested in sports voluntarily and voluntarily play sports under the guidance of teachers, and challenge higher-level skills and records. Which has the significance of enjoying the enjoyment and joy of sports and enhancing school life(MEXT).
- Cultural system
- Cultural systemthe purposeWhat is important depends on how you set it up.It may be the result of a competition, etc., or it may be the performance of service activities in a school or community, mutual aid in academics, arts, technology, etc., or the provision of research results.For performances such as brass band, chorus, and drama,All Japan Band Competition-NHK National School Music CompetitionIn order to get excellent results in competitions such as, there are times when we practice hard without holidays.Is an athletic systemMarching contestIf a cultural brass band participates in the school, it may be physically trained in the same way as an athletic band (depending on the school, the cultural brass band may not perform marching, cheerleading, cheering, etc. There is a marching band as a motor system.)
- There are many school-specific elements in the content of activities, and some departments may not have a corresponding department in a cultural federation such as the National High School Cultural Federation. Many of those departments aim to make presentations in the school or in the community.
- General Affairs Department
- Among the cultural systems, the broadcasting club and brass band clubs that carry out activities related to the events of the entire school may be classified as the "general affairs department" or may be regarded as committee activities. In addition, there is a similar tendency in cheering groups and the like, which are often classified as athletic.
- Outer office
- HokkaidoMany high schools in Japan set up activities related to "brass band," "broadcasting," and "books" as external agencies of the Student Organization, not club activities.Schools that introduce an external agency system use names such as "brass band station," "broadcasting station," and "library station."
Activities by stage
Elementary school, junior high school, high school, universityPublic educationThe situation of club activities, club activities, and club activities changes little by little as the stage progresses. In many elementary schools, club activities are the main focus, and in junior high and high schools, club activities are the main focus. When it comes to college,StudentOften the shackles are loose. BigPublic interest-It is divided into two groups, one is a field-oriented group and the other is a person-oriented group, but there are some groups that do not clarify what they value.
Primary Education,Secondary educationAccompanied by stage club activitiesCompetitionRegarding the clarification of the organizer,victoryNational basic standards such as elimination of supremacy and respect for willingness to participate have been established., Based on this eachEducation Agency, Schools, organizations, etc. also create detailed standards and safety measures, etc.responsibilityClarification and childrenstudentHealth andSchoolworkActivities are supposed to be carried out within the range that does not hinder the operation.
Club activities are compulsory in primary education such as elementary school.this is,Course of StudyThere is a provision inSpecial activityThis is because it is considered as one area. Clubs are established in their own way, with each school or multiple schools collaborating. Although the organizational rate is low, optional club activities and club activities are also organized,chorusTeambrass bandIs organized as a beginning. In addition, in order to distinguish the required club activities from the selected club activities, they may be referred to as "required clubs" and "selected clubs", respectively.
Elementary school club activities are often divided into classrooms at 6 o'clock every week. In addition, recently, many schools basically do not carry out club activities during times other than the name "club activities". However, regarding mandatory club activities,Course of StudyDue to the revision ofYutori educationAs part of2002/Everything from degree to SaturdayHolidayAs a result, the number of schools in which weekly club activities have been reduced to about one hour per month has increased. It can be said that this is a measure to secure class time. In practice, the practice time is irregular due to the actual conditions of each club, and there are also places where the students practice for presentations after school.ChildOur requests and localvolunteer(Often the originalGuardian) May come to teach, but the actual management depends on individual teachers.
However,Elementary, middle and high school consistent educationElementary school club activities are often divided into classrooms at 6 o'clock every week, and the number of schools where the weekly club activity time is increased to about 2 hours per month has increased. Club activities run from the 5th week of April to the 1nd week of March.
KyotoKyoto CityNow, club activities have also started in recent years,cultureThere are also club activities.After classDifferent toschool year,classThe children ofcommunicationIt is also highly desirable for the development of.However, it is very difficult to secure instructors, and there are increasing cases where teachers alone cannot adequately handle them.With the decline in community education, it is essential for teachers to actively engage in protecting the reality of parents and children.EnglishIn areas where teachers are not good at teaching, such as clubs, there are places where parents alone manage club activities.In primary education, teachers should be the basis for club activities under the guidance of the principal, but it is often difficult to reach them.On the other hand, considering the burden on children and teachers, we abolished the club activities that we used to do.Local clubs and circles and sports clubsThe number of elementary schools outsourced to such organizations is increasing.
Incidentally,<span>Grade 1-2</span>Intended forSports boysIs active in elementary school units, for example, a club teamサ ッ カ ーSection",Youth baseballThe club teambaseballThe sports boys' group may be implicitly recognized as synonymous with the club activities of the elementary school, such as being called a "club," and the boundaries between "school clubs" and "regional clubs" may be blurred.
Training campIs generally not done.
1958/According to the curriculum guidelines of, as one of the extracurricular activities, it is an activity that is carried out by the voluntary participation of students, but in junior high school1972/, In high school1973/From the revised course of study, club activitiesSpecial activityIt was made compulsory as an area.In junior high school1993/, In high school1992/The revised course of study stipulates that "participation in club activities can be replaced with some or all of the club activities."But in junior high school2002/, In high school2003/The required club activities in the revised course of studyComprehensive learning timeIt was abolished in the form of being absorbed and integrated into[When?]According to the course of study, "Club activities are part of school education activities.Sports,culture， Students with similar interests and interests in academics, etc., voluntarily and voluntarily, mainly after school, under the guidance of faculty and staff. "It is said that.the current[When?]Then, depending on the actual situation of each school, students will participate voluntarily and voluntarily.Club activities are being conducted as a part of extracurricular activities.
In many schools, club activities arestudent councilOperate under the umbrella of, or in a collaborative or cooperative relationship.
Approximately 5% of teachers who teach athletic club activities in junior high school and high school have experience in competition..
UniversityJunior college-College of technologySuch asHigher educationIn the field, all these activitiesExtracurricular activitiesIs. For this reason, the categories of activity groups differ from school to school, but it is generally said that they can be broadly divided into groups that emphasize public interests and fields and groups that emphasize human interaction, depending on the student's intention. In addition, we are active across multiple schoolsInter College(Generally,IncareThere is also a form called "circle".
There are often self-governing bodies such as sports clubs and cultural associations that are in charge of club activities and club activities. With athletic meet and cultural associationStudent associationRelationships vary from school to school. In addition, there are cases where club activities are conducted without belonging to an organization for each of these activity fields.
In particular, there are many certified clubs in schools that are classified as universities that started from a pioneering position in the field in Japan, and especially in outpatient athletics, it is important from the initial stage of the event in Japan. There is an example that plays a role, and as a result, unlike other school education sites, there is no method of operation such as a general physical education competition that controls all disciplines. (In some areas, such a form can be seen, but it cannot be said to be general.) Rather, individual associations or associations for each discipline have been established from early on, and most have developed in a form in which the number of member schools has increased. (Reference: Partial introduction to related items below)
- Comprehensive physical education competition in each district (in some areas, there is no organizational management)
- All Japan Medical Science Biological Education Championship Championship
- National College of Physical Education (There is a federation of sports colleges in each district under its umbrella)
- National High School Athletic Federation
- Japan High School Baseball Federation
- Japan Junior High School Athletic Federation
Cultural organizations and competitions
- National High School Cultural Federation
- All Japan Brass Band Federation
- All Japan Chorus Federation
Issues/problems and countermeasures
It has been pointed out that club activities play an important role in students' self-actualization and growth in Japanese schools, while some activities, including teachers, place an excessive burden on the mind and body. Such a so-called "Black club"The Society for Club Activities, Japan" was launched in December 2017 to study club activities academically and make recommendations, including countermeasures for problems. .
As one of the reasons why these problems came to be recognized in August 2016NHKThe program "Close-up modern +』, the issue of club activities that perform unreasonable harassment behavior during practice was addressed. With such content as "abusive language that denies the student's personality, and long-term restraint enough to get sick,"Black clubThe voice of a brass band instructor cursing a student or kicking a chair was played, and the actual situation was broadcast..
Even if you don't go to "black club", club activities that require long and hard practice for the purpose of recording and winning will be an excessive burden for students who are not good at exercise or want to keep up with other club activities. There is a side. For this reason, some schools have "light sports clubs" that are easy to participate,Sports AgencyHas established guidelines for sports club activities.
Gifu Commercial High SchoolOf the baseball clubBlacksmith"Instructors with few drawers want to fit their students into the mold, because if they respect their individuality and let them do it freely, they will not be able to respond," he said. He points out that there are many teachers.
As far as the hair of high school ball children is concerned, the stereotypes around them are strong. When the team in Kyushu stood in Koshien, the manager liberalized the hair of the players, and OBs and fans complained that it was not like a ball child. Forced curl is defined as explicit corporal punishment (violence).. Tsuyoshi KawadaStanford University(USA) American football coach said, "Japanese people think it's great to keep going through injuries.".
Around the 2020s, the coverage of black club activities has increased, and recreation-oriented events that you can easily participate in have become popular. Therefore, there is a movement to widen the frontage without relying on the gold medal of the Olympic Games in the field..
Fatal accident during club activities
Injuries and outdoor activities in club activitiesDistressMay occur.Nasu avalanche accident(March 2017) Later, Fuyuyama as a club activityClimbingThe high school which does is halved.. Of other teachers who instruct club activitiesService overtime(overtime work) Becomes too long,Death from overworkThere are also examples that have reached.
Work style reform in school
2018/(Heisei30 years),First Abe Cabinet TheLaws related to work style reformTo establish,Ministry of educationIs "Work style reform in school"Start,2019/(Heisei 31),Central Education Councilreport Based on this, on March 3, the same year, to each prefectural governor, each prefectural board of education, etc.Sports AgencyNotified that appropriate activity hours and rest days will be set based on "Comprehensive guidelines on the ideal way of sports club activities" and "Comprehensive guidelines on the ideal way of cultural club activities" by the Agency for Cultural Affairs...The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology has some teachers who over-focus on club activities, but it reforms the consciousness of teachers, evaluates knowledge about teaching ability and student guidance in recruitment and personnel allocation, and club activities. The leadership of the school is positioned as ancillary, and based on the excessive expectations of some parents for club activities,Unofficial reportNotified to review the way of evaluation for club activities in.
Western school education club activities
America,United KingdomThen, club activities are not positioned as pure school activities as in Japan, but are generally activities that are jointly carried out by the school and the community.. Also,Germany,Italy,NordicSuch asCountryThere are local sports clubs, but there is no equivalent to club activities as school activities..
America's educational and sports policies are different in each state.
CaliforniaIn the case of, junior high school and high school have club activities after school, but there are many cases where it is necessary to pass the tryout as a condition for joining the club... It has become a difficult system to join the club if you have no experience in popular games such as baseball, basketball, and American football... There are also many students who belong to different disciplines depending on the season.
British club activities (school sports)History The19st centuryOriginating from a public school in.. Sports club activities are in both primary and secondary schools and are often taught by physical education teachers...Club activity participation rate is about 50%, and many children and students are active once or twice a week..
In England's national curriculum, for primary and secondary schoolsphysical educationThe policy goal is a total of 2 hours a week, with 3 hours a week for club activities or 5 hours a week for sports activities in the community..
FranceIn addition to physical education, an activity called sports scolaire is provided to children and students... Education and sports are conducted in a joint partnership between the Ministry of National Education and the Ministry of Sports.
In France, school sports non-profit associations (AS) have been established to promote educational sports..
- Although there is no obligation to create an AS in primary education, there are 13,200 member schools in the Association of Primary Education and Sports (USEP), the governing body of AS in primary education..
- In secondary education, there is an obligation to create an AS, and junior high and high school students who wish to join can belong to AS and participate in competitions..
According to a 2006 survey, about 20% of students participate in AS and participate in sports, and about 52% of students participate in sports club and participate in sports. About 68% of the students (duplicate surveys with multiple answers).
There is no equivalent to athletic club activities in Germany, but out-of-class sports activities are active... In Hesse, full-time programs and conferences are held as out-of-class sports activities..
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Mitsubishi Research Institute, Inc. “Overseas survey in a research study on accident prevention during physical education activities (report)” Ministry of education
- ^ a b c TALIS (OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey)Education Human Resources Policy Division, General Education Policy Bureau, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.TALIS Japanese Report "Summary of 2013 Survey Results", National Institute for Educational Policy Research, "Teacher's Working Hours" p.22-4.
- ^ a b c TALIS 3rd 2018 Report-Summary of Teachers and Principals Continue to Learn, National Institute for Educational Policy Research: "Teacher's Working Hours" p.11-13.
- ^ a b (PDF) Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, High School Learning Guidance Guidelines Special Activities, 46
- ^ (PDF) Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Junior High School Learning Guidance Guidelines General Rules, 84
- ^ Tokyo Shimbun-Increase in admission rate for both middle and high school students Club activities
- ^ The pros and cons of the swirling club activities "morning training"-Nagano's decision to "abolish" Concerns about burnout syndrome in junior high school students + (pages 2-2) -MSN Sankei News, 2013.11.14
- ^ Masaki Maezono (former professional soccer player) is a member of Kagoshima Jitsugyo High School soccer club. Shijiri-sensei Don't be like me 3 hours SP TV Asahi 2015 Guest appearance
- ^ Error 404 / Page Not Found. A survey conducted by Morinaga & Co., Ltd. targeting teachers of club activities
- ^ "#What you can do for club activities”. Morinaga Milk Industry Co., Ltd. 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ "FY29 "Survey on sports club activities, etc."'
- ^ "29 fact-finding report about sports club activities”. Japan Sports Agency. 2020/7/7Browse.
- ^ Educational measures in Japan Ministry of education]
- ^ "Standards for athletic competitions for children and students" (about the handling of athletic competitions for new children and students following the abolition of "about athletic competitions for children and students")Heisei 13 years 12th company No. 6,Ministry of educationSports-teensBureau planningphysical education(Notice from section manager "About athletic competition for children and students" attached).
- ^ Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Current Course of Study Chapter 1 General Provisions 4 Matters to be considered when creating a teaching plan (13)
- ^ Survey Report on Actual Conditions of School Athletic Club Activity LeadersJapan Physical Education Association Leader Development Special Committee July 26 (PDF)
- ^ Japanese club activity society(Retrieved September 2017, 12)
- ^ "Japan Club Activity Society" is launched Memorial meeting in NagoyaMainichi Newspaper News Site (December 2017, 12)
- ^ ""Die! Stupid!" Is this a guidance? ~ Spread "Black club"～"- NHK Close-up Hyundai+, 2016.8.1
- ^ A few times a month, enjoyable exercise / club activities have begun``Tokyo Shimbun'' evening edition March 2018, 3
- ^ June 2018, 6 Chunichi Shimbun 7 pages
- ^ June 2018, 6 Chunichi Shimbun 9 pages
- ^ "Olympic medals are also ineffective Challenges left for organizations and supporting companies: Asahi Shimbun Digital”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital. 2021/8/12Browse.
- ^ High school winter mountain climbing halved in half High school activities after the accident Safety measures AnguishNihon Keizai Shimbun evening edition March 2018, 3 (researchKyodo Newsby)
- ^ Death from overwork Certified by club activities Overtime work, 100 hours a month Toyama teacher Mainichi Newspaper March 2018, 7
- ^ Realization of work style reform - Prime minister's residence
- ^ Comprehensive measures for work style reform in schools to build a sustainable school guidance and management system for education in a new era (Report) (No. 213)31 (Heisei XNUMX)2019/) January 1,Central Education Council,Ministry of education
- ^ a b Thorough efforts for work style reform in schools (Notice) (March 31, 2019),Ministry of education
- ^ a b Regulatory Reform Promotion Council Public Discussion Materials Cabinet Office, viewed January 2021, 1.
- "Survey Report School Club Activities and Work Style Reform"Ryo Uchida, Kamori Uechi, Kazuaki Kato, Shun Nomura, Tomosai Ota, 2018, Iwanami Shoten
- Black club
- Children's association - student council - Student association
- Club room
- Return home department
- Japanese high school baseball
- Criteria for separating articles from university alumni organizations, parental organizations, and student organizations
- Club team
- National High School Physical Education Federation (Japanese)(National High School)
- Japan Junior High School Athletic Federation (Japanese)(Nationwide Sports Federation)
- Fukuoka Junior High School Athletic Federation (Japanese)
- National High School Cultural Federation (Japanese)(National Kobunren)
- About National Junior High School Cultural Federation (Japanese)(National Chubunren, Funabashi Junior High School Theater FederationWeb pageInside)
- Japan Club Activity Society Official Website (Japanese)
- Yomiuri Shimbun article "Dramatic changes in club activities (1) Decrease in young teachers and increase burden (Japanese)
- Yomiuri Shimbun article "Dramatic changes in club activities (2) Local clubs take the place (Japanese)
- Yomiuri Shimbun article "Dramatic changes in club activities (3) Teacher's burden Rewarding movement (Japanese)
- Yomiuri Shimbun article "Dramatic changes in club activities (4) Adviser's hard work appeal (Japanese)