Photo On the 18th, the prefecture requested the national government to apply "priority measures such as prevention of spread".In Sasebo City, a record number of 114 infections were found = Sasebo City
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The school trip (about 330 nights) that was reserved next month will not work either. "
"See you again" "I can't help it"-.With the rapid expansion of the variant strain "Omicron strain" of the new coronavirus, Nagasaki Prefecture has become a national government. → Continue reading
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School excursion(Shugakuryoko) is JapanesePrimary Education-Secondary educationSchools (Special schoolIncluding)school eventAs one ofStaffUnder the lead ofChildren, studentsIs in a groupA tour・ Accompanied by accommodation for training, etc.Travel. Especially with "accommodation" and "destination to some extent remote place"Hiking,Visit to social studiesIs distinguished from "accommodation is not an encampment"outdoor activitiesIs distinguished from.In a broad senseOff-campus learningA type of (or out-of-school education).
Course of StudyInSpecial activityOut ofschool eventAs one ofprimary schoolThen, "excursion / group accommodation event",Junior high schoolas well as the high schoolThen, it is classified as "travel / group accommodation event", and the common aim is "in a different living environment, spread the knowledge, get familiar with nature and culture, and build better human relationships. To be able to gain experience about the way we are and public morals. "It has been.
mainlyschool yearIt is carried out in units, and most of them are held in the final grade, but in junior high school and high school, it is often held in the second grade (the final grade is).Entrance examination-Entrance examBecause there are events related to the course ahead).
The beginning of the school trip as a school eventMeiji EraGo back to.Its substantial historical origin was in February 1886 (Meiji 19).Tokyo Normal School(CurrentUniversity of Tsukuba) Is a "long excursion" and is called a "study trip"Also, the school began to use it independently during 1886.Coined word.
As a similar case of off-campus learning in the history of modern education,1877/From the beginning of the establishment (Meiji 10)Tokyo UniversityAnimal and plant collection, geological survey, and geological survey by faculty members and students of each faculty conducted inShell moundExcavation etc.Professional educationAs"Practical research trip"And1881/(Meiji 14) Tochigi Prefecture Daiichi Junior High School (currentlyTochigi Prefectural Utsunomiya High School) Students are led by the teacher for the second timeNational Business Exposition(Tokyo·Ueno Park) Was viewed[Source required]There is a one-off case, but as a regular school event, "the beginning of a school trip" to this day.Is said to beMilitary gymnasticsIntroductionThe military ceremony by the Tokyo Normal School (Japan's first public teacher training institution) was held in the wake of"Long excursion".
Many pre- and post-reports were made about this excursion in newspapers and educational magazines at the time., According to the most well-maintained report diary "Tokyo Normal School Student Ensoku" published in "Dainippon Education Society Magazine" No. 30 (April 1886)1886/(Meiji 19) From February 2th to 15th, 25 boys' normal students at the school were in "uniform" = military uniform, and "firearms and hi".SpineTokyo-Chiba Prefecture, with a cloak blanket attached, several copies of military art and shoes, socks and shirts, etc.ChoshiRound trip betweenMarchIt is said that it was done (military ceremony and academic faculty)・ A total of 121 people including staff).How did it come about?, The first generation who also served as the director of the schoolMinister of Education-Yuri MoriResisted the excessive introduction of military discipline training such as military exercises in the reform of normal education byHideo TakaminePrincipals and teachers initially planned march and ignition exercisesIt is said that the elements (meteorological observation, surveying, animal and plant collection, sketching, famous place tour, shell mound collection, school visit, etc.) were incorporated into the "Practical research of various departments".These on-the-job studies are basic training in each specialized field for teachers at that time., And developmental education led by Hideo Takamine (Actual professor) Is a methodical practice made inevitable, and technical training peculiar to normal education at that time, which is the discovery and collection of actual materials as teaching materials.Also served as.
First appearance of the name "study trip""TokyoMakikaiMagazine ”No. 47 (December 1886), the report“ Higher Normal School Students Second School Trip Overview ”, which was published by Tokyo Normal School.Normal school ordinanceByHigher Normal SchoolIn August-September 1886 after the reorganization, the male normal department students took the same format as the long excursion in the Shimono region (Shiobara,sunlight) Is a detailed summary of the process and results of the trip (“second” means that the long excursion was regarded as the first).After this, the next1887/(Meiji 20) In March, the school officially set the period for school trips.In fact, according to media reports at the time, in February of the same yearKamakura・ To the Suruga region, Crossing Nagano, Yamanashi, Shizuoka, Kanagawa from August to September, To Boso again in March 88, To Gunma / Niigata / Fukushima region from July to August of the same yearIt was carried out continuously.However, already at the end of 1887, "Marching for one night or more is closed in both summer and winter, and only after the spring examination, this is an academic research, and it is not possible to carry military exercise equipment, and it is always temporary. All things are set to be one night and one day round trip, and it is not up to the leader of the military teacher. "After 1888, school trips as academic research and march exercises as military exercises were virtually separated..
on the other hand,School trip by female studentsAlso of the Higher Normal SchoolWomen's Normal Department(CurrentOchanomizu University), Which was carried out to Chiba prefecture during the summer vacation of 1887, and although it is not specified as a school trip, "Educational Notice" No. 79 (August 1887) is "Higher Normal School Girls' Club". Under the heading "Excursion", Kazusa for practical research on geographic museums, etc.KanoyamaI left for the countryside last nine days and went on an excursion for about two weeks. "Since the girls had nothing to do with military gymnastics, this excursion was a literal school trip solely for academic research, ahead of the boys at the school.
1886 yearsNormal schoolas well as the Ordinary junior high schoolEtc.Gymnastics departmentWith the official introduction of military gymnastics toSince 1887, group trips modeled on long excursions have also spread rapidly, especially at prefectural normal schools.,Ministry of EducationAlso confirmed its usefulness in normal education..Ministry of EducationClarified by law as a school trip as an event of normal schoolWhat I did1888/(21th year of Meiji)"Rules for Normal School Equipment"Therefore, "Study trip" is listed in the various expenditure items listed at the end, and "Study trip is under regular work. "Travel travel enforcement" and cost implementation standards (restrictions) are shown...By the way, at the stage of 1883, the school fund provided to the students by Tokyo Normal School was 6 yen a month, and from there, 3.25 yen (about 10 yen per day) was collected as monthly food expenses...As of 1898, the Higher Normal School pays monthly food expenses at a rate of 14.5 yen per day in addition to clothing expenses, and travel expenses are paid instead of food expenses during school trips., I was blessed compared to the normal school, which depends on the finances of the prefecture.
1896/(Meiji 29), Nagasaki Prefectural Nagasaki Commercial School (currentNagasaki City Nagasaki Commercial High School)ButShanghai(At that timeClear country) On a school trip,Japan's first overseas study tripIs said to be.
School trips since the 1890sSecondary educationWhile it has spread nationwide, mainly in schools in Japan, the Ministry of Education's Ordinary Academic Affairs Bureau (Sawayanagi MasataroThe director) will provide guidance on the purpose of the school trip, which can be a waste of time and money, the suitability of the destination, and the appropriate method of pre- and post-professorship.1900/Reference books in (Meiji 33)"Germany study trip"Was published.Germany'sEducational tripIn the same book, which is based on the above, it is defined as "Study trip to all school students, one or more teachers, guidance, lessons, two days (accommodation), physical education, education, education, education, etc." , German educatorChristian Gotthilf SalzmannIntroduced a model that was carried out several times at a school in Schneffenthal from 1784 to 1803..
From the end of the 19th century to the prewar period, infrastructure development such as the spread of railways and the introduction of group discount rates progressed, andHigher elementary schoolSchool trips have become established as school events until the end of the year.1940/(Showa 15) Notification of restrictions on school trips by the Ministry of Education in June,Wartime regimeAccompany1943/Before the war, until the actual ban after (Showa 18)Ise Shrine,Shinohara Jingu Shrine,Itsukushima shrine,Kotohira Shrine such asNational ShintoLead to educationShrineTo the destinationSangu tripWas actively performed..These are for the purpose of enlightening the idea of gods, and although the current antique art tourism was partly done.In the guidebooks for school trips before 1940, the cases of incorporating antique tourism were not conspicuous and could not be said to be general... Also, the old systemHigher commercial schoolThen, from the advocacy of "cultivating talented people who can fly abroad",Korean PeninsulaAnd Mangung areaEast AsiaTo, so-calledManchuria Travel (Manchuria Travel)Carried out,Toa Doubun ShoinIn some cases, students were asked to submit a report after the trip.
Pacific WarAfter that,1946/(Showa 21) Osaka City Higashi Senior High School (currentlyOsaka City Higashi High School) Is KyushuAsoIt is said that it started with resuming the school trip to.Full-scale resumption1950 eraSince then, antique tourism has been actively adopted at the same time.The institutional newspaper "Study Trip" (published by the Japan School Travel Association), published as a specialized magazine for those involved in school trips, encourages the incorporation of antique art tourism into school trips, and is owned by each shrine and temple for teachers. It covers explanations of works of art, prior guidance using photographs, examples of on-the-job training in the field, and educational principles for tours of antique art.The reasons for this shift are the boom in shrine and temple tourism in the mid-1950s and the prewar trip to the shrine.NationalismConsidering the policy of denial of education, convenience of transportation, and environment for accepting group accommodation, it is considered that the travel destination had to be centered on Kyoto and Nara inevitably...Also, from 1970 to 1980, the transportation infrastructure was not as diversified as it is today, so it was exclusively used for transportation.TrainWas used, and there was also a setting of a train for school tourists who decided the timetable of the train in advance and undertook the transportation of train tourists from several schools at once (for details).School excursion trainSee).After that, at a private high school1970 eraAfter the second half,National high school・ Even in public high schools1990 eraAfter the second halfaircraftThe number of cases of using is increasing, especially in private high schools.1980 eraAfter the second half,TravelingThe number of schools to choose from has increased.
School trip destination
- primary school
Relatively close to the local(I.e.Trips to are mainstream. For exampleSouth KantoIfsunlight-Nasu-Hakone-Izu-Niigata-NaganoAnd so on,South Tohoku,North Kanto,Chubu regionFrom the eastTokyoAnd Kanagawa prefecture (Yokohama-Kamakura-Enoshima) And so on.KinkiIfNara-京都-Osaka-Ise Shima-NankiThere are many. In a groupbathingFor the purpose ofSpaOften select areas with Also,West Japan-Southern JapanThen.Peace learningAs part ofHiroshima-Nagasaki-OkinawaI often go to.
- Junior high school
HokkaidoSchools in major cities in Hokkaido (mainlySapporo,Hakodate),Tohoku regionThe school ofCapital AreaTo the metropolitan area and the Chubu region,Chugoku-Shikoku regionMost schools go to the Kinki region and schools in western Japan go to eastern Japan.
The main places to visit on school trips are Nikko in the Tokyo metropolitan area and the Kanto area.Imperial PalaceFront squareHouses of Parliament-Haneda airport(More than 1970s),Tokyo Dome City,Tokyo Disney ResortSuch as theme parks,Tokyo Tower-Yokohama Minatomirai 21-Tokyo Sky TreeLandmarks, such asTokyo Stock Exchange-Bank of Japan Head OfficeThere are many spots that symbolize Japanese politics, economy, and culture.
In Kansai京都-Nara OfHoryuji temple-Todaiji Temple-Kofuku-ji Temple-Yakushiji Temple-Kiyomizu Temple-Kinkakuji Temple-Byodo-in Temple-Sanjusangendo-Kyoto Imperial Palace-Nara ParkBuddhist temples and historical buildings such as.Also, in recent yearsUniversal Studios JapanWith the opening ofOsakaOr for the purpose of disaster prevention learningGreat Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeIs a disaster areaKobeThe number of schools going to school is increasing.
In recent years, I have been using an aircraft in my private school.Hokkaido,OkinawaThere are many cases of going to.In the direction of Hokkaido, historical buildings in the early stages of reclamation (Sapporo Clock Tower,Hokkaido Government Red Brick Government Building,Hokkaido University campusEtc.) orSapporo TV Tower,Otaru Canal, Motomachi district of Hakodate,Goryokaku,Furano-BieiThere are many lavender fields.
On the other hand, instead of Mt.LearningTheOsamuAt a travel destination with the main purpose of "Meru" activitiesFieldwork,Area survey,CoverageSchools that conduct activities and put together reports (University of Tsukuba Junior High School,Aichi University of Education Okazaki Junior High SchoolEtc.), and there are places where traditional forms are still inherited.
- high school
Tokyo and public and privateKinkiIs long mainstreamHowever, in recent years,Pacific WarFor the purpose of re-experienceHokkaido-Hiroshima-Nagasaki・ Many schools choose Okinawa as their travel destination.again,Shikoku,KyusyuIn areas where little snow falls, such as hands-on learningSkiSome schools have classrooms.
Since the 1990s, not only in Japan,Hawaii,AmericaWest Coast, UK, South Korea,TaiwanSchool trips outside Japan such as.. In particular, private schools often use school excursions abroad to promote schools.
There is an opinion that shrines and temples are treated specially for a specific religion, so the number of schools that choose such places is decreasing.However, there are disagreements as to whether visiting for the purpose of learning history or sightseeing is really a special treatment for a particular religion.
In junior high school and above, it depends on small groupsGovernment office,Infomation-Newspaper company,TV stationThere are also tours to such places, and in many cases the purpose is to learn the career path to understand them as a workplace.Also, in some high schools, to understand where to go to schoolUniversityThere are also examples of research facilities being visited as research destinations. These are mainly cases where schools outside the metropolitan area visit the metropolitan area, but on the contrary, in schools in the metropolitan area,Agriculture:In order to deepen the understanding of industry, society, and culture outside the metropolitan area, there are also examples of farming experiences in remote areas (for example, at schools around Tokyo, to the northern part of the Tohoku region).
internationalexpositionWhen a school trip is held in the year of the event, the viewing is often the main (1970).Osaka Expo, 1985Tsukuba Science Expo, 2005Aichi ExpoSuch).In that case, tourist spots and industrial facilities in the area around the venue are often used as sub-visit sites.
Great East Japan EarthquakeSome schools go to the disaster area to learn and experience the damage and reconstruction situation after a large-scale disaster such asFukuoka Prefectural Shuyukan High School).
Increasingly, the number of destinations outside of Japan is increasing as a destination for school excursions. The purpose is to cultivate an international sense, but the cost is higher than in Japan, and safety considerations are required.
2011/Every year, 737 schools (304 national and public schools, 433 private schools) conducted the training. The implementation rate was 8.0% at national or public high schools and 32.8% at private high schools... The implementation rate tends to be high in the Tokyo metropolitan area, where there are many private high schools, and in western Japan, which is geographically close to South Korea and China.
In 2011, the travel destination ratio was Southeast Asia 29.7%, South Korea 21.2%, North America 17.6%, China 11.8%, Taiwan 8.5%, Oceania 7.7%, and Europe 3.6%. Although there are many neighboring Asian regions, there are cases where private high schools in metropolitan areas such as the metropolitan area go far away, such as in Western countries.
Faculty and staff
The faculty members to lead are not only the faculty members in charge of the relevant grade, such as the class teacher, the grade chief, and the deputy teacher, unlike travel at other school events such as excursions.head teacher(Sometimes as a substituteProfessor),nursing teacherIs often added.If the principal, school nurse, etc. are absent due to the lead, a duty agent will take over the school affairs.
When conducting school trips at public schools, for elementary and junior high schools (excluding prefectural junior high schools), each municipality orspecial area OfBoard of educationBut high school,Secondary schoolFor special needs schools and prefectural junior high schools, each prefecture orGovernment-designated cityBoards of Education set standards by notification..In particular, in order to reduce the burden on parents, there are many cases where the total amount of travel expenses is limited or the upper limit of the travel period is set.There are also examples of limiting travel destinations to certain areas and setting an upper limit on the total travel distance.As a result, itineraries for school trips in national or public schools are in elementary school (Compulsory education schoolIn principle, the upper limit is 1 night and 2 days, and even in high schools (including secondary schools), the upper limit is about 5 nights and 6 days.In principle, travel outside Japan is limited to high schools (including secondary schools), and it is extremely rare for elementary and junior high schools to carry out school trips outside Japan.
On the other hand, private schools are not subject to the above restrictions, so it is not uncommon for elementary and junior high schools to travel outside Japan.Itineraries also tend to be longer than public schools, with a 2008 survey showing that only 5% of national or public high schools have itineraries of five days or more, compared to private high schools. 23.8%, more than doubled.
Reexamination of significance
Voice asking the significance of implementation
High economic growthIn the past, when the income of ordinary Japanese households was low and the high-speed transportation network was underdeveloped, there were few opportunities to go on family trips far away, so the basic purpose was to spread the word through school trips. Was there.However, income has improved, transportation infrastructure has been improved, andPrivate carSince the number of families who frequently travel with their families or travel far away, including overseas, has increased, there have been voices asking about the significance of the school trip itself.In addition, there are cases where school trips are abolished as described below due to voices worried about the imminent negative aspects of going on to school and employment, and criticisms of the adhesion between schools and boards of education and travel agencies.
However, “I will learn the desirable attitudes and habits of interpersonal relationships through the experience of communal living spending day and night with my friends during my short school days.” Playing an important role in forming human beings for the sensibilized generation through the experience of "getting deeper from familiarity with the local nature and culture" and "gaining desirable experiences of collective life and public morals"From the standpoint of ", many of the school officials, students, and parents have a positive view of the school trip so far, and few schools have decided to review the school trip itself.However, there are schools that have stopped the name of school trips and replaced them with names such as "accommodation training."
In recent yearsLow income,Welfare recipientThere is also an opinion asking the significance of this because it is not uncommon for families to find it difficult to find out the cost of their school trip reserve fund due to the increase in the number of students.[Who?].
Example of abolition of school excursion
As an example of the abolition of school excursions,Miyagi Sendai Second High School-Ibaraki Prefectural Tsuchiura Daiichi High School・ Most of Toyama Prefectural High Schools ・ 31 Shimane Prefectural High Schools, privatelyHakodate La Salle High School-Private Musashi High School-Waseda University High SchoolAnd so on.In addition, some schools have canceled school trips due to scandals at their school trip destinations.However, in this case as well, out-of-school training such as off-campus training and university class experience that accompanies accommodation instead of school excursions is often conducted (eg Hakodate La Salle → High 1 in October).HiyamaIn the jurisdictionOkushiri IslandDisaster learning at.Sendai Daini High School → High School 1 in JulyMt. KurikomayamaClimbing in 2 days and 3 nights).
In addition, instead of acting for the entire grade, some courses are prepared, and schools that allow students to choose a course that suits their individual wishes, and overseas training only for those who wish, apart from school trips (Home stay) There are schools that prepare such things.
Absence / non-participation
GymnasticsBrass bandStudents who belong to such club activities may be forced to absent from school excursions in order to prioritize practice and games throughout the club. Especiallyhigh school baseballIt is often seen when you are refraining from national competitions such as.
In addition, there are some students who have no choice but to absent from school trips due to cost and financial reasons at schools that have overseas study trips such as private schools.In addition, there are cases where students are absent from school trips due to reasons such as chronic illness or injury, or because they are afraid of heights and cannot fly.2020/ToNew coronavirus infectionSchool trips are canceled at the discretion of the school due to the prevention of infection, or the consent of parents or students (some boards of education require the consent of two-thirds or more of the parents of participating students) In many cases, they will not participate.
In either case, if you can attend school,Self study(Because school trips are included in the credits required to graduate, and if you do not participate, you need to fill in the credits by self-study, etc., and the schedule is also included in the number of attendance days).
Broadcasting of safety information
In Akita Prefecture, based on the idea that “Akita is an agricultural prefecture and children are treasures”, to realize the feelings of parents, “I have many children who are going out for the first time and want to know their safety.”1970/From aroundAkita TVStarted broadcasting on the idea of Takashi Aizawa (later president and CEO) who was a business.. Often provided by supermarkets and individual stores in each school district. Most of the airing time is aired in the evening, and it is only aired when it is safely on schedule... With Akita TelevisionAkita Broadcasting2 stations and rarelyAkita Asahi BroadcastingHas been broadcasting a commercial for about 15 seconds,primary schoolとJunior high schoolInformation can be confirmed.
YamanashiButYamanashi broadcastingとTV Yamanashi, Respectively, the information of school excursion students is flown in the evening local news frame as school excursion safety information and study trip information.
Radio FukushimaHowever, information may be broadcast.
In KyotoKBS KyotoThen.Weekday final news(TV is Monday to Thursday 21:55-22:00, Friday is "Kyoto bizW』（21:25 - 22:25）枠内内包、ラジオは毎日21:50 - 22:00=野球シーズン中は原則）の中で「修学旅行だより」として京都府内の各学校の修学旅行生の安否放送を長年放送していたが、携帯電話の普及などを理由として2009年3月に終了した.
Another way to contact is in each regionMunicipal disaster prevention administrative radioOr after the 2000sCommunity broadcastingBut there are also ways to inform each family.
- Broadcast example
- "All the elementary school excursions are in good health (destination) and are amusement parks. Please be assured."
- "The people at XX Junior High School are watching the night game at Tokyo Dome after the first day of their schedule."
- "○○ High School Excursion Group arrived on their way home after finishing all the schedules."
- ^ Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology: Elementary and junior high school learning guidance guidelines (29 notification), high school learning guidance guidelines (30 notification)
- ^ a b 1885-90 "Official gazette』In the education-related column, public schools, prefectural normal schools andHigh school-Ordinary junior high schoolAlong with the march articles (88 articles) by, etc., march articles (85 articles) with academic research are published, and the number of articles increased especially in 1887-88.In the latter article, names such as school excursions, school excursions, school trips, and on-the-job school trips were used in addition to school trips.
- ^ (PDF) Ministry of Foreign Affairs 2008/10/1
- ^ In addition to the "Annual Report of the Ministry of Education" appendix "Annual Report of the Faculty of Law and Literature, University of Tokyo", revised in February 1881"Rules for Travel Expenses for Practical Research, Faculty of Law and Literature, University of Tokyo"(Article XNUMX Domestic and foreign faculty members and students' on-the-job research) Travel expenses for both land and water travel and stays
- ^ a b "History of Tokyo Higher Normal SchoolTokyo Higher Normal School, 1911 p.37-38
- ^ "1885th Annual Report of the Ministry of Education" (XNUMX) "(May) XNUMXth Tokyo Normal School Gymnastics Department Middle School Gymnastics Temporary Gymnastics Wokafu"
- ^ As an example of post-reporting, an article with almost the same text as the one published in "Dainippon Education Society Magazine" at the same time is "Tokyo Nichini ShimbunOn April 4-18, "Tokyo Normal School Student Chiba Prefectural Ensoku Excursion Report" (→ "Education Hochi" will be posted later), "TokyoMakikaiIt is published in "Magazine" No. 39-40 entitled "Tokyo Normal School Student Ensoku Report".Also, already in the latter half of March, "Educational Times" Nos. 3-33 and "Tokyo Higher Normal School" Nos. 35-114 published different diaries under the same heading "Tokyo Normal School Student March Diary".
- ^ As a student chief school employeeGoto Makita(Physical chemistry) andYasuharu MatsuishiIn addition to (Ensign Army Infantry), as an academic teacherYutaro Iwakawa(Animal and botanical science),Shotaro Koyama(Drawing),Yoneyoshi Miyake(History), Yoshiki Omura (Attached Elementary School Guidance), etc.
- ^ Goto MakitaLecture speed record by "The Beginning of School Trip" (Makikai "Education" No. 344, 1911), "Tokyo Higher Normal School History Summary" 1911, "Takamine Hideo Sensei DenSee 1921 etc.
- ^ According to the "Kanpo", the students of the schoolGymnastics schoolAlready in 1885 the previous year with the traineeAsukayama("Student March" dated November 11) andMokuboji TempleRegular day-trip marches to ("School Student and Trainee March" dated December 12).In addition, "Jiji Shinpo" on February 23, 1886, in the academic vocabulary section, "Tokyo Normal School students will be in Shimousa for a week from the coming 2th.NarashinoharaInfantry exercises will be held at Narashino. "
- ^ Takamine Hideo is studying abroad in the United StatesPestalozziIndependently with the Developmentalist Education Theory ofZoologyImmediately after returning to Japan, at the Faculty of Science, the University of TokyoMorseHe was involved in anatomy and animal and plant collection as an assistant.Makita Goto is a Western scholar with a wide range of academic knowledge who works on the development of simple experimental equipment on his own, while also working on the excavation of shell mounds.Yonekichi MiyakePositivismModern Japanese history and its basisHistory educationAspiring to establish, he was also familiar with physics and chemistry.Yutaro Iwakawa is a Morse at the Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo.WhitmanAs a Japanese zoologist, he was the first to publish his achievements in an overseas (UK) academic journal.Koyama Shotaro is an Italian landscape painterFontanesiStudied underperspectivePhotographic modern based onWestern paintingI was aiming to enlighten and disseminate.Takamine, Goto, and Miyake are allKeio UniversityI learned at.
- ^ A 2 speech by Hideo Takamine, published in the second issue of "Tokyo Makikai Magazine" There is no choice but to buy foreign products such as the standard of his animal and gold stones, and also to buy with a large amount of capital. Some of them are sown Some of them have been exchanged for other schools, and as such, they have been paying attention to the collection of standard products and have not neglected from beginning to end. "
- ^ "Educational Theory" No. 67 (February 1887)
- ^ "Education Hochi" Nos. 80,82,83,86-88 (August-September 1887)
- ^ "Educational Theory" No. 107 (February 1888)
- ^ "Education Hochi" Nos. 130-134,136,138,140-143 (August-October 1888)
- ^ "Educational Theory" No. 99 (January 1888) "Regulations for the March of Higher Normal Schools"
- ^ "Education Bulletin" No. 128 (July 1888) "(Higher Normal School) Boys' students were sent to the Shinano region last year as a school trip. From the Echigo region to the Wakamatsu region of Fukushima prefecture. It is said that you should return to Tokyo. This time, if you do not carry a gun and you can only engage in research by dividing each department with only a land cell, there are many places you can get it. "
- ^ May 1886 The content of the men's gymnastics department based on "ordinary normal school no department and its degree" is "ordinary gymnastics c preparatory method correction technique dumbbell stick ball rod no various gymnastics type gymnastics c corps training march exercise In the "Military Science Map" and the June "Department of Normal Junior High School and its Degree", the implementation of military gymnastics in the 5th-6th grade boys' gymnastics department and its details were stipulated.In addition, although the high school and junior high school are charged to all the second grades, the contents are not touched on (excluding the engineering science aspirants), and for the elementary school, only the collective behavior training is designated as the "boys' procession movement".
- ^ In the "Fifteenth Annual Report of the Ministry of Education" (1887), the normal school "Men's student's school trip was enforced, the geography was explored, and the flora and fauna were collected. In addition, it is said to be a small number of students, and in the 1890th year of the report (XNUMX), it is useful for training teachers in school trips. In addition, it is reported that "Fukoto Takiha XNUMX times a year".
- ^ In the proviso at the end of the same rule, it is necessary as "Physical chemistry instruments, middle teachers, students, production, simple instruments, substitutes for sulmo, and natural history agricultural specimens. Corresponding specimen collection activities were recommended.By the way, a total of 386 species were designated only for the plant, animal and mineral specimens required by the natural history department.
- ^ "Government Bulletin" September 1883, 9 Appendix "Tokyo Normal School Elementary School Normal Department Revision Regulations"
- ^ 『高等師範学校一覧（明治31年4月-明治32年3月）』掲載の「学資支給規定」による（36-38頁）。なお、「学資に関する心得」によれば、「試験生」段階で自弁すべき食費は一日当たり12.5銭とされ、「本入学ヲ許サレタル時ヨリ学資（食料及ビ被服費）ヲ支給セラレ又修学旅行ヲナサシムル時ハ其ノ費用ヲ給セラルルモ猶教科用図書購入費、筆墨紙等学用品購入費、暑中休業ノ際帰省旅行等ヲナスニ要スル費用、寄宿舎諸雑費等」で卒業までに総額約200円の私費が必要とされた（163-164頁）。
- ^ Yoshihisa Seki "About overseas school excursions at local commercial schools in the Meiji era-focusing on the cases of Kumamoto Commercial High School and Hakodate Commercial High School-" "Pedagogical Studies" Vol. 82, No. 2, Japan Education Society, 2015 , 299-311, two:10.11555 / kyoiku.82.2_299.
- ^ Kazushi Fujita,Hitoshi Ieda. "Significance of "journey" in school excursions-Introduction, transformation and modern significance of self-improved educational trips-”. Japan Society of Civil Engineers. 2021/2/12Browse.
- ^ MEXT Time Signal No. 693
- ^ a b Akira Hoshino "History of School Trip", "Geography Education" Nos. 26, 27.
- ^ 1911/(44th year of Meiji)Nara Women's Higher Normal SchoolFor the purpose of Kyoto school excursion and artist trainingTokyo Art SchoolSchool trip around Kinki's antiquities.
- ^ Tomomi Ota “Art History Connected to Society: Modern and Contemporary Academicism and Media/Amusement” Yoshikawa Hirofumikan, February 2015, 2, pp.20-149.
- ^ "(Fukabori) School Trip" Learning in the Region "Popular Under Corona, Hiroshima / Nagasaki, Atomic Bomb Area, Mie of Nature Experience ...: Asahi Shimbun Digital"(July 2021, 11)
- ^ In Kansai, many schools use the Seto Inland Sea route to go to Kyushu,Kansai SteamshipThen, there was also a period when a school excursion ship was enrolled.
- ^ School Trip Study Theory "Think about Overseas School Trips from ODA"
- ^ "(Fukabori) School Trip" Learning in the Region "Popular Under Corona, Hiroshima / Nagasaki, Atomic Bomb Area, Mie of Nature Experience ...: Asahi Shimbun Digital"(July 2021, 11)
- ^ http://shugakuryoko.com/chosa/kaigai/2010-02-gaiyou.pdf
- ^ 25 school excursion implementation standards (prefectures, ordinance-designated cities) -School excursion dot com
- ^ 25 Overseas School Trip Implementation Standards -School excursion dot com
- ^ II. Trends in school excursions and participation/experience-based learning programs - Cabinet Office
- ^ (PDF)
- ^ A cartoon about high school baseball "Diamond AHowever, there are depictions of members absent from school trips and studying at school.
- ^ On the contrary, there are also cases in which the tournament is declined to participate in a school excursion.
- ^ a b c Fuji Television Trivia Promotion Committee "Trivia Fountain-Heeno no Hon 4" Kodansha, 2003.
- ^ Broadcast guide for school excursion -KBS Kyoto
- ^ Travel and culture, March 34, 3 issue -National School Trip Research Association
- ^ NBC 60th anniversary "March 3st is NBC Radio's birthday"★ -NBC Radio Blog
- ^ Broadcast content Arashi ni Shigare (broadcast on March 2011, 3)
- Nobuyoshi Yamamoto and Toshihiko Konno, "Idealism of the Emperor System of Modern Education-Consideration of School Events in the Meiji Period," Shinsensha, 1973.
- Hideo Sato "Encyclopedia of Schools" Shogakukan, 1987
- Michimori Satake "Problems of School Education Concerning the Introduction of Military Gymnastics" "Bulletin of Hokkaido Kyoiku University Part 28 C Educational Science" Vol. 1977, No. XNUMX, XNUMX
- "History chronology of school trips""Educational Travel Annual Report Data Book", Japan Study Travel Association
- Sakae Hayami, "How did young people participate in national events?" Nesco, 1999, ISBN 4890360921
- "Perfect Guide to Study Travel in advance" series, supervised by: Japan Study Travel Association, published by:Gold star company
- School excursion train
- Group ticket(Corporate ticket)
- Graduation trip
- Forest school
- Seaside school
- Overnight childcare
- Kazuo Funaki (Single record "Study Trip" released in 1963)
- Japan School Excursion Association
- National School Excursion Research Association
- School excursion Visiting Kyoto and Nara -Made in 1980Ministry of EducationSelected educational movie, NPO corporationScience picture museum
- Liaodong School Trip -Tokyo Higher Normal School School Trip Corps Recorder, 40th year of Meiji