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We also heard voices expecting Sado Kinzan to be registered as a World Heritage Site.
 

The fight against the new coronavirus, which has entered its third year, concerns about the sixth wave, and the world heritage of Sado Kinzan.XNUMX of the year of the tiger ... → Continue reading

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World heritage registration

Sado Kanayama

Sado Kanayama(Sadokinzan), orSado Gold and Silver Mine(Sado Kinginzan) isNiigata OfSado IslandIt is inGold mine-Silver mineGeneric term[1]Is.Above allAikawa Gold and Silver MineThe scale of (Aikawa Kinginzan) is particularly large, and when we simply say "Sado Kinzan", it may refer to Aikawa's.In addition, the names "Sado Mine" or "Aikawa Mine" are also used.

This section describes the outline of the gold and silver mine on Sado Island and the Aikawa gold and silver mine.

Overview

Many mines have been confirmed on Sado Island, including the four major gold and silver mines shown in the table below.[1]..Among them, Aikawa has a large scale and is a national country.Historic site,Important cultural propertyDesignated to, orImportant cultural landscapeThere may be many archaeological sites and landscapes that have been selected for (Details).# Cultural assets), And now it is also a base for tourism in Sado.

Major gold and silver mine in Sado Island (Source:[1])
Main namesApproximate mining start timeClosed mountain
Nishi-Mikawa sand gold mineHeian periodBefore1872/
Tsuruko Ginzan(Tsurushi)Sengoku period1946/
Niibo Silver MineSengoku periodBefore?
Aikawa Gold and Silver Mine (Aikawa)Edo Periodinitial1989/

Sado IslandOreIs mainly called GinguroquartzinsidePyroxeneandNatural goldThe fine particles of the above were present in the form of veins.

History

Prehistory

TenshoIn 17 (1589), he succeeded the trace of Kenshin Uesugi.Uesugi KagekatsuHonma was destroyed and Sado became Uesugi territory.

It is believed that the development of Aikawa Gold and Silver Mine began at the end of the 16th century.[2],Sengoku periodAikawa's gold vein was undiscovered.for that reasonSengoku Daimyo OfKenshin UesugiThere is no record of this (the Tsuruko silver mine had already been mined).novel"Shingen Takeda]Jiro NittaDescribes that Sado Kinzan was the financial resource of Kenshin Uesugi, saying that "there is no record because it was kept secret", but during the Warring States periodSado TheMr. HommaMr. Uesugi does not own the territory of Uesugi, and in that sense, it is impossible that Kenshin Uesugi owned Sado Kinzan.just,"Old and new storiesIn Volumes 26 and 15 of the book, there is a stage called "A person who digs iron in Noto no Kuni, a word to go to Sado no Kuni to dig gold", and it is mentioned that gold can be collected in Sado while recording hearsay. ing.It seems that it was known that gold was produced in Sado at least in the form of gold dust in the latter half of the 11th century, which is estimated to be the date of establishment of the storybook.

Edo Period

Keicho6 years (1601)Tokugawa IeyasuIt becomes the territory of.In the same year, Hokusan (Mt. Kinpokusan) Since the discovery of the gold veinEdo PeriodThroughEdo ShogunateIt became an important financial resource for.Especially in the first half of the 17th century[1].

The heyday of the Edo period was the early Edo periodGenwaからKaneiOver the yearsFriIs 1 in a year kgIt is estimated that it was calculated above[1],SilverIs 1 a yearPerseverance(37.5 T) There is a record that it was paid to the shogunate[1]..One of the largest in the world at that time[3] OfJinshanIt is one of the leading silver producers in Japan and is based on the Edo Shogunate.Keicho Gold and SilverIt was an important mine to supply the materials for.Among them, the Aikawa mine isEdo ShogunateWas the center of the Sado mine, which operated as a direct control area and produced a large amount of gold and silver.Produced and smelted hardcore (Sujikin / Sujigane) andAshibuki silverWas paid to the shogunateKinzaandGinzaIs in custodycurrencyCast to.And especially silverRaw silkAs an import price such asChugokuThe ash-blown silver produced in Sado was also called seda silver.

However, the Sado mine has declined since the middle of the Edo period.[4].. In 1690 he was also a magistrate of SadoShigehide OgiwaraHas taken aggressive measures to invest a total of 15 cars into the mine for reconstruction, and as a result, it has temporarily increased production, but after all it has continued to decline, and since then the prosperity of yesteryear has continued during the Edo period. Never returned[5].

From around 1770 in the late Edo periodEdo,OsakaSuch asNon-resident(Vagrant) was forcibly taken away and forced to work hard, but it is said that this had a strong meaning of showing.Non-residents are mainlyWater change footWas used to replenish[5],this isAbove sea levelThis is because the tunnel was extended underneath, and a large amount of spring water prevented development from remaining.

The labor of water changers is extremely hard, and "Kanayama in Sado The hell of this world, all the ladders to climb are swordsWas touted.It is said that the non-residents of Edo were most afraid of this Sado service.The hut that accommodates the water changers was in a valley in the mountains between the silver mines, and traffic to the outside world was blocked, preventing escape.In the hut, the man and the head of the hut supervised it, and its brutality was more than prison, and there was no deadline and heavy labor was imposed until death.[6]

After the Meiji era

Government-owned from the early Meiji era (initiallyMinistry of EngineeringJurisdiction.Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce,Ministry of FinanceSince 1889MiyauchiJurisdiction of the bureau[5]However, in order to respond to the decline in output since the middle of the Edo period, the Meiji government1869/In (Meiji 2), a Western engineer was sent to the mine.GunpowderMiningJackhammer, Etc., started to introduce modern Western technology.As a result, output began to increase again.[5][4].. In 1877 (Meiji 10), a concentrator using Western-style technology and the first Western-style shaft and Otate shaft in the history of Nippon Kinzoku Mine were completed.[4].

1885 (Meiji 18) The governmentGold standardに基づく近代貨幣制度へ移行するため、佐渡鉱山のさらなる増産を目指すようになり高任立坑の開削、ドイツの新技術の導入による北沢浮遊選鉱場の建設、大間港の整備などを続々と行っていった。また鉱山技術の国産化を進める目的で1890年(明治23年)には鉱山学校が開校し、日本の鉱業教育に重要な画期となった[4].

1896 (Meiji 29) The Sado mine, which was an imperial property,Hyogo OfIkuno MineMitsubishi Joint Stock Company (renamed to Mitsubishi Mining Co., Ltd. in 1918).Mitsubishi Materials) Was sold.Mitsubishi promoted the mechanization of the Sado mine, such as the electrification of power.As a result, by the late Meiji era, the amount of gold in the mine exceeded 400 kg per year, returning to the level of the first half of the 17th century, which was the peak of the Edo period.[4]..Production continued to increase thereafter, especially in 1931.Lake Yanagijo IncidentLater, as the war on the Chinese mainland expanded, the demand for gold increased as a means of settlement for the import of a large amount of munitions, and the gold production increase system was strengthened at the Sado mine as well.[7]In 1940 (Showa 15), the Sado Gold and Silver Mine produced about 1,500 kg of gold and about 25 tons of silver annually, which is the highest in history.[1].

The management of mining workers is initially operated by the "room system" (barn system) by the head of the room, which is entrusted with the hiring and management of workers by Mitsubishi Mining, and this system has a great power to supply the labor force of the Sado mine. However, due to the large number of intermediate exploitations by the heads of the rooms, labor disputes began to occur frequently since 1899 (Meiji 32) due to the growing awareness of workers' rights, especially in 1922 (Taisho 11). In May, a large-scale labor dispute arose with the participation of 5 miners.Therefore, in January 650, Mitsubishi Mining Co., Ltd. established a new labor clerk, strengthened labor management, changed the management policy from a room system to a directly managed system, and took measures to alleviate worker dissatisfaction.[7]..In 1904, a hospital (mining hospital) with 23 beds was set up (the number of beds increased to 1934 due to the renovation in 32), and it was used as a light-cost diagnostic center for miners.[7].

Second World WarThe value of gold as a means of settlement of payments has diminished, and more emphasis has been placed on increasing and securing production and securing of copper, iron, zinc, and coal, which are important resources for the war, and copper mining is increasing at the Sado Mine. , Gold mining has decreased.Also during the warKoreanA large number of workers were mobilized (more on this later)[7]..The Sado Mine continued to produce great results during the war, and in August 1943.Etsaburo ShiinaMinistry of CommerceThe Under Secretary is visiting Sado to encourage miners.In October of the same year, he received awards from the Ministers of Commerce and Industry and the Minister of Health and Welfare.To celebrate this, the Sado Mining Co., Ltd. is holding a rokyoku performance at the Kyowa Kaikan on the night of the 10th of the same month to thank all employees and local Aikawa townspeople.[7].

In 1952 (Showa 27) after the war, Mitsubishi decided to reduce the scale of the Sado mine on a large scale. In 1976 (Showa 51), the Sado Mine Division continued to mine independently as Sado Mine Co., Ltd., but eventually it was closed in 1989 (Heisei XNUMX).[1][5].. By the time the mountain was closed in 1989, the Sado mine calculated 78 tons of gold and 2,300 tons of silver.[4].

Currently operated by Golden Sado Co., Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of Mitsubishi Materials, it is open to the public as "Historic Site Sado Kinzan" and aims to be registered as a "World Heritage Site".[4].

History of Aikawa Gold and Silver Mine

Cultural property

Important cultural property

  • Former Sado Mine Mining Facility 3 units 4 buildings 1 location[10]
    • One Odate vertical shaft turret
    • Large vertical shaft hoisting machine room (-Makiage Kishitsu) 1 building
    • Doyukou and Takatokou (Doyukou and Takatokou) 1 place
    • Takato Sosaiba 1 building
    • High-ranking storage building and one belt conveyor yard
    • 1 train garage (machine shop)
    • One Manoyama Kamibashi
    • 1 Manoyama Shimobashi

Historic site

country'sHistoric siteThe "Sado Gold and Silver Mine Ruins" are designated as "Doyu no Warito" (Doyu no Warito), "Soda Yumabu" (Soda Yumabu), Minamizawa Canal, Otate Vertical Pit Tower, and Mano. Mining-related items such as the Yamato KobaRemains-(I.e.,Sado Magistrate's OfficeTrace, old time signalBell tower, Management-related ruins such as the former Sado branch office building, and Sado Bugyo who was successful in developing the Sado mineNagaan OkuboWas built. In 2011 (Heisei 23), the name of "Sado Gold and Silver Mine Ruins" was changed by adding the remains of Tsuruko Silver Mine.

Important cultural landscape

"Old and new stories』Written in12st centuryAt the site of Sado's oldest gold mine, where more gold dust was collected, the process of moving to a rural village can be seen.
The Aikawa district, where the Sado Bugyosho was located in the mining center of the Edo period, and the Meiji eraModernizationThe facilities in the Kitazawa area (including Oma Port) and the scenery of Kyomachi-dori, which have become the core since then.

Tourism

Of the four major mines, the one where tourism development is progressing is Aikawa Gold Mine, and for the other three mines, the experience facility "Nishi Mikawa Sand Gold Mine"Sado Nishimikawa Gold ParkThere are no conspicuous facilities for attracting customers other than the above.

The following describes sightseeing at Aikawa Gold and Silver Mine.

Historic Site Sado Kinzan

tunnelThe total length of the route is about 400 km, of which about 300 m is open to the public as a sightseeing route by Golden Sado Co., Ltd.There are exhibitions related to the early modern period and exhibitions related to the modern era, and the courses are divided.For details such as admission time and fees#External linkSee "Historic Site Sado Kinzan".

  • Sotayu mine (Edo Kanayama picture scroll course)
    • About 70 dolls that reproduce the mining landscape are installed in the hand digging tunnel.
    • Exhibition Museum
  • Doyukou (Meiji Government Mine Course)
    • Equipment from modern times such as trucks is on display.
    • Doyu no Warito
  • Guided tour
    • Go around the tunnels that are not open to the public in the above two sightseeing routes.

Modern mining facility

At the Aikawa Mine, many modern facility remains remain, and various guides are divided into five districts (for details).[1]Figure of pp.20-21 and#External linkSee the map by the Sado City World Heritage Promotion Division).

The work process is set from the top to the bottom of the mountain, from the Otate / Takato area of ​​the mining site to the Ainoyama / Ainoyama area for ore sorting, and the Ainoyama / Kitazawa area for ore beneficiation and refining. Because the production line was about 3 km to Oma Port where the products were shipped.[13], The remains are also distributed along this.

Kitazawa district

Oma Port

It was built in the middle of the Meiji era as a port for shipping products and carrying in supplies, and many remains such as artificial stone revetments, bridges for mining cars, and brick warehouses still remain.[14]..Like the Kitazawa district,2010/The plaza was constructed in (22)[15].

Landscape of the mining town

#Important Cultural LandscapeThe townscape that was also selected continues to the surrounding area.Especially called "Kyomachi-dori"main StreetOld buildings are lined up along the line, and walking courses are set up in the surrounding area.

Tourist facility

As a base facility for disseminating information in April 2019Prefectural Road No. 45 Sado Round LineKirarium Sado, a guidance facility equipped with a video theater, various exhibits, and a tourist information center, has opened alongside.[12][16].

In addition, it was opened in 1956 by utilizing the building of the national historic site "Sado Branch Office", and stores historical and folk materials of the Sado Gold and Silver Mine and the Aikawa area.Aikawa Folk MuseumIs in the Kitazawa district (however, it is scheduled to be abolished in the future)[17].

other than this,"Sado Magistrate's OfficeThe restored building is open to the public.

Events

  • Mine Festival (around the end of July)
  • Non-resident memorial service (4rd Sunday of April)

Movement to World Heritage registration

2007/(Heisei19 years)Agency for Cultural AffairsWhen he solicited a candidate site for a World Heritage Site, he said, "Gold and Silver Island, Sado-Mine and its Culture-After running for candidacy and selection2010/In December"Heritage group of Sado mine centering on goldAsUNESCOWorld Heritage CenterWas posted on the provisional list of.2016/Continue to submit draft recommendations to the Agency for Cultural Affairs every year,2021/(Reiwa3 years)Cultural CouncilSelected by the World Cultural Heritage Subcommittee as a candidate for examination at the 2023th World Heritage Committee in 46.2022/March 2Japanese govermentSubmitted a nomination to UNESCO[18].

Candidates for constituent assets areEdo PeriodOnly mine-related historic sites developed up to now, such as Kitazawa Floating Concentrator, Otate Vertical Pit, Oma Port, etc.Meiji EraIt was maintained after thatModernization industrial heritageIs not included[19].

2022 year 2 month 20 dayKyodo NewsAccording to the opinion poll, 73% of the respondents said that the Japanese government's decision to recommend "Kanayama on Sado Island" as a world cultural heritage was "appropriate".Especially in Koshinetsu, which includes the local Niigata prefecture, it was 94%.According to the answers by supporting political partyLDP78.5% of the support layer,Japan Restoration Party84.6% of the support layer,National Democratic Party75.9% of the supporters answered that it was "appropriate", which was high.Japan Communist PartyThe support layer was the lowest at 28%[20].

Opposition

South Koreathe governmentSecond World WarHe claims that more than 1200 Koreans were forced to work at the Sado mine, and opposes the registration of Sado Kinzan as a World Cultural Heritage site. The Japanese government, which aims to register in 2023, has a policy of organizing a cross-ministerial task force to gather counterarguments against South Korea and prepare for the "historical war".[21].. February 2th in South KoreaChung Yi-YuAnd JapanYoshimasa HayashiAt the foreign ministers' meeting, Hayashi informed the Korean side that "the Korean side's own claim was not accepted and it is regrettable."[22].

north koreaThe government said, "Unbearable blasphemy against the Korean people who have fallen into hard labor." "Japan's honor lies in sincerely reflecting on and apologizing for past invasions and crimes." "Kanayama on Sado Island can never be a world cultural heritage. Criticized Japan's response[23].

People's Republic of ChinaThe government said, "Ignoring the painful memories of neighboring countries and trying new registrations will only lead to further anger and repulsion." Japan's response must be dealt with appropriately and gained the trust of its neighbors in Asia and the international community. "[24].

RussiaThe government said, "We understand the reaction of the South Korean side." "Japan has various crimes, including South Korea, in order to erase the criminal acts committed by Japanese leaders from human memory during World War II. I think we are taking sustainable measures against the country, "he criticized Japan's response.[25][26]..As of 2022, Russia is one of the 21 member states of the World Heritage Committee (term 2019 – 2023).Russia invades UkraineAs Japan imposes economic sanctions on Russia as well as Western countries, it is reported that Russia may oppose the registration of Sado Kinzan as a World Heritage Site in retaliation.If there is an opposition country, it will be voted and more than two-thirds of the 21 member countries will need to agree.[27].

Japan Communist Party"The fact that forced labor of Koreans was carried out at Sado Kinzan at the end of the Pacific War is an undeniable fact described in the history of Niigata prefecture and the history of local governments." He criticized Japan's response, saying that it was a limited recommendation and that there was an allegation that it had nothing to do with the labor of Koreans during the war, but it did not work.[28].

Korean labor during the war

In July 1939, as the Sino-Japanese War intensified, the Japanese government decided to limit Korean men to the three fields of mines, coal mines, and civil engineering in Japan and mobilize them as workers.Initially, it took the form of "recruitment" by each company, but from July 7 it was changed to "labor association mediation", and from September 1942 it was "recruitment".[7].

Run Sado KinzanMitsubishi Mining Co., Ltd. (currently Mitsubishi Materials Corporation)Initially, Sado Mining Co., Ltd.Chungcheongnam-doWe are recruiting at.At that time, the southern part of Korea was exhausted by the drought, and there were a large number of farmers who were in trouble, so many people accepted the recruitment. Since the contract was often two or three years, some people started to expire in the 2s, but Mitsubishi Mining Co., Ltd. gives a personal certificate of commendation and a considerable incentive to those who have completed the continuous employment procedure at an appropriate time. By doing so, the continuation of employment was promoted. From December 3, 1942, Sado Mining WorksMinistry of DefenseWas designated as a "managed factory" and a "recruitment order" was transmitted, and the degree of compulsion for Korean workers increased.[7].

In addition, Korean workers were often at a disadvantage in terms of treatment compared to Japanese workers. As of May 1942, there were 5 Japanese and 709 Koreans working at the Sado Mine, for a total of 584 people. The percentage of Koreans in underground labor is high, and the percentage of Japanese in underground labor such as "craftsmen", "miscellaneous husbands", "miners" and "others" is high (Japanese are 1239% "others". "Is supposed to be a concentrator).From this, it can be seen that dangerous underground labor was mainly assigned to Koreans.[7]..Also, in terms of salary, most Korean workers were farmers, so they were generally at a disadvantage to Japanese workers under the "contract system" that required skills.[7].

The last mobilization of Koreans to Sado was in July 1945, and it is said that the number of workers alone was "a total of 7 people".[7].

Since the record of copper mining at the Sado mine did not improve during 1945, the number of Korean workers in Sado became excessive, and 189 of the Koreans in Sado became the first body corps.SaitamaThen, 219 Koreans as the second body corpsFukushimaWas sent to and engaged in the construction work of underground factories in each prefecture.[7].. At the end of the war on August 1945, 8, 15 Korean workers remained in the Sado mine, and then Korean workers who had left Sado as a body corps also returned to Sado one after another (some are missing). ), Most returned to the Korean Peninsula from Niigata Port, except for some who wished to live permanently in Japan.[7].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

Source

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Learning materials: Rediscovery !! Sado Kinzan For junior high school students and above”. Sado City, Niigata Prefecture (November 2015). 2019/10/6Browse.
  2. ^ Sado Aikawa Mining City Landscape Preservation Survey Report Chapter 3 Section 1 Published by Sado City World Heritage Promotion Division in March 2015
  3. ^ "A booming Japanese mine, is it really a" resource-poor country "?"Nihon Keizai Shimbun. (September 2012, 1). originalArchived as of October 2012, 2.. https://web.archive.org/web/20120202083501/http://www.nikkei.com/biz/focus/article/g=96958A88889DE1EAE0EAE1E5EAE2E0E7E2E3E0E2E3E0E2E2E2E2E2E2;p=9694E3E2E3E3E0E2E3E3E7E0E5EA 2012/10/11Browse. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g MITSUBISHI MATERIALS MMC Magazine A treasure trove of Japanese gold that boasts the largest output
  5. ^ a b c d e Encyclopedia Mypedia Sado Kinzan Kotobank
  6. ^ Nawa Yumio "History of Torture and Punishment" Oyamakaku, 1987
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Sadazo Hirose Sado Mine and Korean Workers (1939-1945)
  8. ^ Green Sigma (2008). "Former Sado Mine Modernization Heritage Buildings Survey Report". 同. https://web.archive.org/web/20191229111947/http://nirr.lib.niigata-u.ac.jp/handle/10623/27404.  --Archive by WayBack Machine
  9. ^ About cancellation of registration(Agency for Cultural Affairs website)
  10. ^ October 24, 12 Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Notification No. 28
  11. ^ "Kirari Umu Sado" Penetration Issue Gold and Silver Mine Transmission Base Use is sluggish "Niigata Nippo. (April 2020, 7). https://www.niigata-nippo.co.jp/news/local/20200713555193.html 
  12. ^ a b "Kirarium Sado" opens on April 4 at a glance at the value of gold and silver mine "Niigata Nippo. (April 2019, 4). https://www.hokurikushinkansen-navi.jp/pc/news/article.php?id=NEWS0000019068 
  13. ^ Kitazawa Floating Concentrator Local Information Board "National Historic Site Sado Gold and Silver Mine Site Former Sado Mine" Viewed in 2019
  14. ^ "Niigata Civil Engineering Structure Tour 38th Existing Artificial Stone Revetment Oma Port (Aikawa District, Sado City)”. Civil Engineering Society Kanto Branch Niigata Association (May 2012, 5). 2019/10/6Browse.
  15. ^ "Former Sado Mine Remains Square Design-Design Sites Surrounding Cultural Properties-Landscape / Design Research Lectures”. Japan Society of Civil Engineers (December 2010). 2019/10/6Browse.
  16. ^ "Reproduce the gold and silver mine" Kirarium Sado "Aikawa is crowded from the first day"Niigata Nippo. (April 2019, 4). https://www.hokurikushinkansen-navi.jp/pc/news/article.php?id=NEWS0000019230 
  17. ^ Reorganization of museum functions Sado City Board of Education 2 building abolition policy (Niigata Nippo, October 2018, 10) - Wayback machine(For archived March 2018, 10)
  18. ^ “Government submits Sado Kinzan World Cultural Heritage Recommendation”Sankei Shimbun. (July 2022, 2). https://news.yahoo.co.jp/articles/577f5c7359591726b7e3ac6433da9a91aeb83c21 
  19. ^ "Kanayama on Sado Island”. Niigata Prefecture (October 2022, 2). 2022/2/1Browse.
  20. ^ Sado Kinzan "Recommended Appropriate" Koshinetsu XNUMX% Kyodo News Survey Sankei Shimbun March 2022, 2
  21. ^ Jiji Press Sado Kinzan, seriously armed to heritage registration, theoretically armed to "rekishisen" against Korea
  22. ^ Sankei Shimbun Hayashi protests against South Korean Foreign Minister "Sado Kinzan" "regrettable"
  23. ^ Tele-Cho News "Sado Kinzan" North Korea opposes the recommendation to register as a World Heritage Site "Unbearable blasphemy"
  24. ^ Asahi Shimbun "Ignore memories of pain" Complains about the recommendation of world cultural heritage in Sado Kinzan, China
  25. ^ Wow! Korea Russia "opposes" the registration of "Sado Kinzan" as a World Heritage Site = South Korean coverage
  26. ^ Russia also opposes the World Heritage registration of Record China Sado Kinzan "Difficult to understand" = Korea Net "Recent friends are Russia"
  27. ^ JoongAng Ilbo Ukrainian situation jumps to "Sado Kinzan"?Japan "World Heritage registration, Russia may oppose"
  28. ^ Shimbun Akahata Claims Sado Kinzan's Recommendations Face the facts of history and admit mistakes

References

An essay from the Edo period.Contains anecdotes about Sado Kinzan.
  • Keiichi Tanaka, "Historical Study of Sado Gold and Silver Mine" (Tosui Shobo, 1986)

Related item

外部 リンク

Coordinate: North Latitude 38 Degrees 2 Minutes 31.3 Seconds East longitude 138 degree 15 min 32.8 sec /38.042028 degrees north latitude 138.259111 degrees east longitude / 38.042028; 138.259111


 

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