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😷 | Yamaguchi Chamber of Commerce decides business plan and budget for 2021

Photo ▲ Seated while maintaining social distance

Yamaguchi Chamber of Commerce decides business plan and budget for 2021

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In addition, attendees were seated while maintaining a social distance.

At the 178th Ordinary General Assembly of the Yamaguchi Chamber of Commerce, 140 out of 138 members attended (88 of them were powers of attorney), Yuda ... → Continue reading

 Sunday Yamaguchi

First published in 1978. We issue 3 copies of free local information paper three times a week on Wednesday, Friday and Saturday in the distribution area of ​​Yamaguchi City, Yamaguchi Prefecture. In addition to daily life information, we also deal with "hard articles" such as Yamaguchi Prefectural Government, Yamaguchi City Government, and local economy.

Wikipedia related words

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Social distance expansion strategy

Social distance expansion strategy(Sharing school,English: social distancing) Is[Note 1],InfectionFor the purpose of stopping or slowing the spread ofMedicineDo not useinfectionSuppressionIs a means for.It is a measure to reduce the chances of people making close contact with each other by keeping a physical distance between them.[2][3]Includes keeping a certain distance from others (which distance is appropriate may vary from time to time and from country to country) and avoiding large group gatherings.[4][5] The purpose of social distance reduction is to reduce the likelihood of contact between infected and uninfected persons,sick OfContagion,Morbidity, And finallymortality rateIs to minimize[3].

JapaneseOther notation,Social distance strategy[6],Social distance strategy[7],Securing human contact distance[8],Secure social distance[9],EnglishKatakanaTranscription officialSocial distanceI translated itMeasures to avoid crowds[10]and so on. In addition,SociologyA translation of the term Social distanceSocial distance(In Japan, transcrib English and leave it as it isSocial distanceTomo) is originally a different concept[11], In both Japanese and English, it is sometimes used without much distinction as a word indicating the physical distance between humans.[12][13][14][15].."Social distance" is also recognized as a translation of Social distancing.[16].2019/から2020/OverEpidemic of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)In the periodwho (WHO) is based on the concept that it is only physical distance that prevents infection and that one can maintain social ties through technology, instead of "social" distance. Proposed to use the term "physical" distance[2][17][18][19][20][21].

There isinfectionWhoinfectionBy reducing the possibility of making physical contact with people,Transmission routeIs restricted,mortality rateCan lead to a decrease in[2][3]..Good respiratory hygiene measures to increase social distance (MASKSwear,coughEtiquette, hand sanitizer in case of contact with respiratory secretions or contaminants)Hand washingUsed in combination with[22][23].

To slow down the spread of infectious diseases, and in particular to avoid overburdening the medical system,PandemicDuring (widespread epidemic), school closures, workplace closures,isolation,quarantine,Cordon sanitaireBlockade by,Mass gatheringMeasures to expand social distance such as cancellation of[3][24].

In modern times, there are some cases in which successful measures to increase social distance have been successful in the past epidemics of infectious diseases.The United States of America OfSt. LouisThen,1918/Ininfluenza OfPandemic(Spanish cold) Was confirmed in the city, and the administrative authoritiesDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularClosed, closed rallies for large numbers, and implemented other interventions to increase social distance.St. Louis Ofmortality rateIt is,influenzaA large number of people will participate despite confirming the infection caseparadeAnd did not take measures to increase social distance even if more than two weeks passed after confirmation of the first infection case.PhiladelphiaMuch less than the mortality rate of[25]..Measures to expand social distanceCoronavirus pandemic from 2019 to 2020It is also being implemented.

Social distancing measures are more effective when the infection spreads in one or more ways:[26].

On the other hand, mainly infectious diseasesFaeces route(Infection through water and food with poor hygiene)mosquitoOther insectsIntermediaryIf spread through, the effect will be smaller[27].

Disadvantages of measures to increase social distance include:孤独Feeling,ProductivityOf theHuman relationsThere is a decrease in benefits related to[28].


EpidemiologyFrom the perspective of, the basic goals behind the social distance expansion strategy are:Effective number of reproductionsNoIs to reduce. This effective number of reproductions will beBasic reproduction numberThat is, the value should be equal to the average number of secondary infections from one patient in a population with equal probability that all members will be infected. Basic model of social distance expansion strategy [30] Out of the total populationOf people, the number of people to contact is usually 1If reduced toEffective number of reproductionsIs given by the following formula.[30]

For example, if 25% of the population reduces social contact to 50% of normal, the number of effective reproductionsIs the number of basic reproductionsOf 81%. At first glance it may not seem like much reduction, but it can make a significant contribution to delaying the exponential spread of disease.[31][32]

Effective number of reproductionsIf the value of can be kept below 1 for a sufficiently long period, containment of infectious diseases will be achieved and the number of infected persons will decrease.[32]


Center for Disease Control and Prevention The (CDC) describes the social distancing strategy as a series of "methods of reducing the frequency and proximity of person-to-person contact for the purpose of reducing the risk of spreading infectious diseases."[24].Coronavirus pandemic from 2019At times, the CDC defines social distancing strategies as "congregate settings." [33]Stay away from, avoid mass gatherings, and if possible keep a distance of about 6 feet (183 cm) or 2 meters (m) from others. "[4][5].

Before the above,2009/ OfSwine fluDuring the epidemic ofwho (WHO) described the social distancing strategy as "keeping at least one arm away from others and minimizing the gathering of people."[22]..Social distance expansion strategies include good respiratory hygieneHand washingIs used in combination withPandemicIs considered to be the most viable strategy to reduce or delay[22].


The social distance expansion strategy is for coughing and sneezing.Splash infectionMost effective in the case of infectious diseases. It is also effective in cases of direct physical contact, including sexual contact, indirect physical contact, or airborne infection.[34].

However, the infection is mainly through contaminated water and food, or such as mosquitoes and other insects.IntermediarySocial distance expansion strategies are less effective when transmitted by[35].

The downside of this strategy is that不安-Depression-FrustrationOrStigmatizationIt can be mentioned that psychological and social problems such as[9].

Concrete example

If it is recognized that the illness circulates in society, people will choose to stay away from public places and others.(English editionMay be a trigger. When social distance expansion measures are implemented for the control of epidemics, they may bring benefits, but with economic costs. Research shows that measures must be applied immediately and rigorously in order for social distance expansion measures to work effectively.[39] Several social distance expansion measures have been implemented to curb the spread of infectious diseases[4][24][26].

Avoid physical contact

Keep a minimum of 2 meters from each other and touch your body directlyhug,gestureBy not doinginfluenza OfPandemic(Widespread fashion)2020 coronavirus pandemicThe risk of transmission of infectious diseases such as[4][40] It is also recommended in the workplace to maintain the above separation distance with personal hygiene precautions.[41] if possible,TeleworkMay be recommended.[23]

HandshakeTo sayTraditionVarious methods have been proposed as alternatives to. Align your palms with your palms, point your fingers upwards, and pull your hands toward your heart,Namaste OfgestureIs an alternative that does not involve physical contact.British coronavirus epidemics in 2020SometimesPrince CharlesUsed this gesture to greet guests at the reception,who (WHO)Tedros Adanom GebreyesosThe secretary generalIsrael OfBenjamin NetanyahuThe prime ministerNamaste OfgestureIt is recommended to use.[42] Other alternatives for handshaking include shaking hands,Shaka sign(HawaiiUsed in,thumb小指Fold the three fingers to fold the rest)(I.e.Used in part ofpalmThere is a gesture that puts on the heart part.[42]

School closure

Closing schools could delay the spread of infectious diseases,Mathematical modelIndicated by.However, the effect also depends on how much the student has contact with others outside of school.Often one of the parents will have to take a break from work, which may require an extension of the school closure period.These factors can cause social and economic turmoil.[44][45]

Workplace closure

AmericaBased on data fromMathematical model,simulationAccording to the results of the study, if 10% of workplaces affected by infectious diseases are closed, the overall transmission rate of infectious diseases is about 11.9%, and the peak period of the number of infected people can be delayed only slightly. Is suggested.On the other hand, if 33% of workplaces affected by the infection are closed, the transmission rate of the infection will be reduced to 4.9% and the peak number of infected people will be delayed by one week.[46][47]..Workplace closures include the closure of "non-essential" business services and social services ("non-essential" services mean establishments / institutions that do not maintain key functions of the community. and,Essential services[48]Is an antonym of).[49]

Cancellation of large groups

Mass gatheringTo cancel theSportsEvent ofmovies-musicalPerformances etc. are included[50]..Evidence suggesting that mass gatherings increase the potential for transmission of infectious diseases is not conclusive[51]..Some kind of mass gatheringinfluenzaIs associated with an increased risk of transmission ofPandemicAt times, it suggests that new seeds of new virus populations may be sown in the area and cause transmission to the community.Case evidence(AnecdoteThere is informal evidence in the form of or wind.1918/ Ofinfluenza OfPandemic(Spanish coldAt timesAmerica OfPhiladelphia[52][53]andDuffel Bag[54]Was held inMilitary paradeWas infected withSailorIt is possible that the spread of the infectious disease was caused by a mixture of ordinary citizens. Combining the regulation of large-scale gatherings with the intervention of other social distance expansion measures may help reduce the spread of infectious diseases.[55] [56]

Travel restrictions

Border restrictions or restrictions on domestic travel are not expected to delay the spread of infectious diseases for more than two to three weeks unless implemented with a 99% coverage rate.[57].空港AtscreeningThe inspection isCanada[58]andAmerica [59]Occurred in2003/ OfSARS(Severe acute respiratory syndrome)OutbreakIn (Outbreak),ウ イ ル スIt was found that there is no effect in preventing the spread ofAustriaOttoman EmpireAt the border betweenGland plagueIs infected byAustriaTo prevent inflow to the side1770/から1870/Strict border control was carried out up to and is said to have been effective. Since border controls were setAustriaThis is because there was never a large-scale epidemic outbreak in the territory.Ottoman EmpireOn the side19st centuryUntil the latter half, he continued to suffer from the spread of infectious diseases.[60][61]

2020/Published in MarchNortheastern UniversityIn the study ofChugokuThe limitation of travel between and is only possible when efforts are made to reduce infections at the community and individual level and combined with those efforts.COVID-19Slows the rate of expansion. [...] Travel restrictions are not a sufficient measure unless implemented in conjunction with increasing social distance.[62]By this research,WuhanTravel bans in Japan have reduced the spread of infectious diseases abroad by about 80%, ChugokuIt was revealed that the spread of infectious diseases to other areas of the mainland was only delayed by 3 to 5 days. There are many reasons why travel restrictions have not been effective.COVID-19This is because the infected person does not show symptoms in the early stage of infection.[63]

Shield from infection

The way individuals shield themselves from infections is to limit face-to-face contact, work over the phone or online, avoid public places, and reduce unnecessary business trips. ,and so on[64][65][66].


2003/ToSingaporeOccurred inSARS OfOutbreakIn order to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, about 8,000 people at homequarantineIs required, and for the other 4,300 peoplesymptomI was asked to do a self-examination and check the health department every day. After allSARSOnly 58 people were diagnosed with the disease, but public health officials were satisfied that the method helped prevent further spread of the disease.[67] 2009/ OfTexas OfinfluenzaIn the epidemic, the voluntary self-isolation of the population may have helped reduce the transmission of infectious diseases.[68]..Studies have shown that quarantine has negative psychological effects, both short-term and long-term.[28].

Blockade by protection line

1995/,Zaire(CurrentEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu)ofKikuwitAtEbola OutbreakIn order not to causeCordon sanitaireWas used.[69][70][71] Mobutu Sese Seco The presidentKikuwitThe town of軍隊Surrounded by and interrupted all flights entering the town.KikuwitIn the town ofwho(WHO) andZaireFurther medical teamCordon sanitaireSet upMedicalMeasures area andburialArea from the general publicisolationAnd succeeded in containing the infectious disease.[72]

Preventive isolation

1918/ Ofinfluenza OfPandemic(Spanish coldFashion)ColoradoThe town ofGunnisonSelf-quarantined the entire town for two months to prevent the influx of infectious diseases.highwayTobarricadeWas installed and train passengers arriving in town were quarantined for five days. As a result of preventive isolation, Gunnison has beeninfluenzaThe number of deaths due to[73]..Several other municipalities have adopted similar measures.[74]


Other measures includePublic transportStop or limit driving[75], Sports facilities (localPool, Youth club,gymnasium) Closed[76][77][78][79] Securing clean areas, reducing opportunities to meet other people, self-defense to avoid crowds, etc.

Johns Hopkins UniversityBruce Y. Lee of Bloomberg School of Public Health lists[80]. (Some may overlap with the above)

  1. Do not leave home as much as possible
  2. 2 mDo not approach within
  3. Don't stick your body
  4. room,elevatorAmong them, keep a distance
  5. Handshake-hug-sillaginoidDo not (like JapanesebowFind alternative methods)
  6. Avoid work, school, movie theaters, sporting events (switch to work from home, distance learning, internet viewing, etc.)
  7. Go to grocery store and laundromat in free time
  8. rush hourAvoid (Avoid crowded trains)
  9. ペ ン・ Push button ・door knobDo not touch anything that many people may have touched. If you touch it, wash your hands immediately. Carry a pen. Use a clean paper towel to touch the doorknob.
  10. Meetings / Meetings /Happy hour OfbarAvoid Gather in small groups only with people who can be sure that they are not infected.


There is concern that increasing social distance may have a negative impact on participants' mental health.[81]..By participating in social distance expansion measuresstress,不安,DepressionNoパ ニ ッ クBut especially alreadyAnxiety disorder,Obsessive-compulsive disorder,ParanoiaCan be caused by individuals in mental states such as[82]..By the mass media,PandemicWidespread coverage of and its economic spillover and the hardships that result from them can create anxiety.In addition to the psychological stress of being separated from others, changes in the daily environment and uncertainty about the future can also increase stress.[83].

How to use words

The word "social distance", which is the English word for social distance, has been around since 1830.class,PeopleIt is used to refer to the sense of distance that occurs between people who differSocial scienceWas widely used as a term[15][84].. "Social distancing" was also widely used in social science literature from the late 1950s to the 2010s to refer to such distance-taking actions.[85].. On the other hand, in social terms, "social distance", which means the physical distance to be opened to humans, has been used since 1935.[84].. However, after 2019New coronavirus infectionDue to the epidemic, "social distancing" and "social distance" and the noun "social distance" are widely used in the sense of distance to humans to prevent infectious diseases. In the moonMerriam-WebsterThe meanings of these nouns were registered in the web version of the English dictionary[15][86][87].

On the other hand, with regard to using the word "social", people can use technology to interact with each other even if they refrain from contacting each other face-to-face to prevent infectious diseases. I'm not asking for socializing and keeping away from others[88]Therefore, there is criticism.whoProposes a more desirable "physical distance" which means physical distance[2][17][18][19].

Advertising by companies

As social distance is called for,CompanyCarried out an advertising campaign to spread this habit.

Advertising with company logo

McDonald's(BrazilCorporation),Coca Cola,Audi,Volkswagen,ZARAFor example, the logo with a high degree of recognition has been modified and opened with a space between the characters to make it public. Visually appealing the concept and significance of social distance[89].. Even in Japanese companiesau,Nippon Cultural Broadcasting, Inc.,東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン,sharpAnd others called for social distance with a gap in the company logo and account name.[90].

Advertising as a precursor to social distance

Hakata Tonkotsu Ramen Restaurant "Ichiran』The taste concentration system was sold by Ichiran himself as the original social distance after the outbreak of the corona wreck, and attracted attention from various media.Subsequently, Ichiran systematized the method of hygiene measures in connection with the taste concentration system and released it as the Ichiran model (ICHIRAN MODEL).[91].. Ichiran was relaunched by changing store owners1993/At the Nanokawa store that opened in, we started to prepare partition boards between seats in response to a request from female customers that it was difficult to enter alone.Corona17 years before the outbreak2003/On August 8, the patent for the "Taste Concentration System" was obtained (for details of the patent, see "JP 8-2005"). The practice of social distance in Ichiran has been calculated for almost 063009 years since the Nanogawa store.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ The Japanese notation is2009 pandemic influenza pandemicAt the timeNational Institute of Infectious DiseasesAdopted one of the notations by the Center for Infectious Diseases[1].


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