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😷 | We are sovereigns working on the restoration of the world crisis and democracy-How to work on the "Tokyo Conference"-


We, the sovereigns, are working to restore the world crisis and democracy-how to work on the "Tokyo Conference"-

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The system of democracy is an imperfect mechanism and must be constantly improved.

Yasushi Kudo, the representative of the Genron NPO, and Yasushi Akashi, the former Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations, who also serves as the advisory board for the Genron NPO, will be next week ... → Continue reading

 The Genron NPO

Genron NPO is a private-sector-led, neutral and independent think tank that crosses national borders and collaborates with many knowledgeable people around the world. Since its founding in 2001, it has continued to provide a "stage of speech" that confronts Japan's democracy and future challenges by connecting people who are active on the front lines of various fields in Japan.And, in collaboration with the world's major think tanks and many knowledge groups, we are creating a new flow to confront various difficulties in the world and Asia.

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Democracy(Minshushugi,British: Democracy) OrDemocracyWhat is (Minshusei)?people Country or Region OfpowerOwn and exercise it yourselfPolitical thought or Political systemIs that[2].

In ancient timesAthensDemocracy is famous, and in modern timesCivil revolutionBy the form, principle, movement, thought of politics generalized by[3][4], A democratic societyCivil society-Bourgeoissociety·ModernCalled "society" etc.[5][6][7]. The antonym isAuthoritarianism-Oligarchy-Dictatorship-Despotism-Theocracyな ど[8].

Emphasis on democracy and democracy as a basic national principleCountryIs thatDemocratic countryIt is called.



"democracy"(democracy) Comes fromAncient greek Of democracy(demokratia, Democratia). "people-people-MassesMeans Δῆμος(Ancient Greek latin transliteration: dêmos, Demos) and "power-支配Means state(Ancient Greek latin transliteration: kratos, Kratos), and is an ancient Greek word meaning "popular power", "popular rule", "National democratic rightThere is a meaning such as [9].

This term is likewiseExcellent personMeans ἄστ(Ancient Greek latin transliteration: aristos, Aristo) and state Combined ἀριστοκρατία(Ancient Greek latin transliteration: aristokratia, Aristocratia. Power and control by excellent people.Aristocratic system,OligarchyIt is used in contrast with and is a term that contrasts whether the power or the ruler is a member of all or all members.

After the decline of ancient Greece, the word "democracy"Popular politicsCame to be used in the meaning of.Ancient romeSo the word "democracy" is not used,monarchyAbolishedSenateCivic assemblyIs a system that has sovereigntyRepublicWas called.

The first explicit democracy request in modern political thinking wasPuritan RevolutionAt the levelers (Levelers, Egalitarian, horizontal)[10].

Modern OfEnlightenmentAfter that, "democracy"LiberalismIt came to be used as a term of thought (Liberal democracy). FurtherFrench RevolutionAfter that, the monarchyAristocratic system-TheocracyIn contrast to such things, from the 20th century onwardsTotalitarianismIt has been used more in comparison with. Note thatpoliticsThen, the generic name of (the government of) non-democratic system is "AuthoritarianismSystem (authoritarian system).

Democracy and democracy

In Japanese, "democracy" is usuallyGovernmentrefers toDemocracy, refers to the systemDemocracy, It can be translated as democracy to refer to thoughts, ideas, and movements.note thatpoliticsThen, in order to clearly point out ideas, ideas, and movements, the kana transcription of "democracy" is used.Democratism[11]''(British: democratism[12]) is sometimes used.

In addition, modernGreek languageThen.democracy(Dimocratia) stands for "democracy" and at the same time "Republic(Republic) ”, And δημοκρατία is also used when saying the country name“ ~ Republic ”.

The word "democracy"

[13]The Chinese word for democracy is, according to the traditional Chinese sense, "minor" or monarch.Calligraphy,Left biographyThis is the usage seen inWilliam Martin (Ding Yuliang) was the earliest to oppose this to democracy and republic.Universal Law(1863 or 64), and Martin translated "a democratic republic" as "democratic country".However, this translation into Chinese was the earliest manifestation of the confusion over the understanding of the concepts of democracy and republic, or their translation, which would later appear in China and Japan for a while.British, before MartinRobert Morrison(Marei Rin)'s "Chinese English Dictionary" (1822) introduced democracy in the context of "pre-existing unmanned leadership and unmanageable turbulence" (unable to agree, many people are chaotic). ,Henry Medhurst(Madusi)'s English Dictionary (1847) goes a little further, ``People's national rule, It can refer to many being unreasonable, and it can also refer to a few foolish people playing with high authority).In addition, Germany's Robscheid ``English Dictionary'' (1866) describes ``People's politics, the jurisdiction of the people, the power of farmers'' It was explained that a person with a name plays with high authority). In the latter half of the 19th century, the understanding of the Chinese-speaking world was not uniform on this point. )” were mixed.On the other hand, in Japan, democracy and republic were initially dealt with simply and without distinction, and in 1862Tatsunosuke HoriCreated byEnglish-Japanese parallel sleeve dictionaryThen, the Japanese translation of "republic politics" was used for both democracy and republic. This isUniversal LawWith the arrival of and the strong acceptance of it, the era of combined use and mixed use of the word "democratic" will be reached.

Evaluation of philosophy

Democracy (democracy,Democracy, Democracy) makes the important decision-making of an organization by the members (people, people, masses, people) of the organization.sovereignty) HaveGovernment-system-Political thoughtHowever, there are more assertions and arguments than ancient times in its concept, philosophy, scope, and institutions.

The Ancient GreekDemocracy ofOligarchyPeople's rule (people's rule, majority rule) against (minority rule),Rule of law,自由,Autonomy,Legal equalityWas associated with such a concept. But then longPopular politicsHas come to mean after the 17th centuryEnlightenmentbyLiberalismRe-evaluated from the standpoint ofSocial contract theoryByNational democratic rightAnd the orthodoxy philosophy ofHonorary revolution,American Independence Revolution,French RevolutionSuch asBourgeois revolutionHad a great influence on. DemocracyUtilitarianism,EmpiricismAlthough it is evaluated from the standpoint, there is a danger of turning into minority dictatorship against the background of the tyranny of the majority and the support of the people.

In particular, the evaluation of democratic ideals changed dramatically in the 2th century, triggered by the two world wars.World War I TheTotal warAnd,German Empire,Austria-Hungary Empire,Russian EmpireEtc. the Empire ended[14].World War ILater called "the most democratic constitution in the world"Weimar ConstitutionUnderGermanyso,Adolf HitlerLeadNazi partyComplaining about the German national crisisJuly 1932 German Parliamentary electionsMade a big leap inReferendumso"President".Second World WarThen, the meaning of "confrontation between democracy and totalitarianism" was emphasized especially by the United States that participated in the war from the middle,Cold WarBecame "totalitarian" after the start ofSoviet Union OfStalinismWas added[14].. Many people were mobilized in the war during the war, including post-gun women, and political statements should be allowed as long as they contribute to the war, resulting in the expansion of voting rights.[14].

In this way, the legitimacy of democracy has increased, and even the most dictatorial nations have come to claim that they are the embodiment of true democracy. What is democracy?[14].


There are the following typical types and classifications of democracy, but the classifications and names vary depending on the times, positions, and viewpoints, and there are many discussions.

Direct democracy

Direct democracy thinks that the intentions of the members of the group should be reflected more directly in the decision-making of the group. The ultimate form of direct democracy is a form in which members directly gather and argue and make decisions, while high orthodoxy can be obtained, but especially in large groups, physical restrictions and members are high. Knowledge and burden are required. Also in the form of electing representatives such as members of the Diet, the choice of voters is emphasized, and the members of the Diet are not trusted but delegated the will of the voters.recallAnd may be subject to re-election.

Ancient timesAthens,Ancient romeThen.Civil societyWas carried out. In modern timesInitiatives (national initiative, resident initiative, etc.), Referendum (Referendum,ReferendumEtc.) and recalls are directly democratic, and inherit the traditions of city states.Switzerland,The United States of America OfTown meetingFor example, autonomy by the participation of members is emphasized.

Indirect democracy

Indirect democracy (representative democracy, representative democracy) is a method/system in which members of a sovereign group elect their representatives (members, presidents, etc.) and make actual decisions. Decision-making by the sovereign will be indirect, but it will be possible to select a person who is knowledgeable and conscious, and who can withstand the time and cost of political activity. Depending on the election system, the position of members (whether it is a supporter or constituency representative, or the overall representative), legitimacy of the election (equality of voting value, suitability of ward division, verification of vote count, etc.), There is always discussion about the legitimacy of decisions made by the representatives (whether the sovereign's will (public opinion, public opinion) is reflected).

liberal democracy

Free democracy (liberal democracy, constitutional democracy)LiberalismDemocracy by. Human beings have reason and can judge,Liberty,Private ownership,SuffrageSuch asBasic human rights TheNatural rightAsConstitutionalismLimitation of power bySeparation of powerEmphasize the separation of power and the balance of restraint. Classically, we consider that elected members are representatives of all and have the freedom to discuss and negotiate and make decisions according to reason.

Religious democracy

ReligiousDemocracy in.Christian democracy,Congregation, Buddhist democracy,Islamic democracyetc.

socialist democracy

SocialismDemocracy inFabian SocietyBy etc.Social democracyThe tide ofDemocratic socialism,Marx-Leninism(So-calledCommunism)byProletarian democracy,People democracy,New democracyand so on.

Jeffersonian democracy

President of the United StatesThomas JeffersonDemocracy by etc. Emphasizing republic and independence,ElitismAgainst the political party system and weak federal system (Small government) Insisted.

Jacksonian democracy

President of the United StatesAndrew JacksonDemocracy by etc. Extending voting rights from landowners to all white men,Hunter systemAnd advanced the territory.

Grassroots democracy

Civic movement,Resident movementDemocracy by the general public.Jeffersonian democracyAs the source,Franklin RooseveltAdvocated by[15].

Defensive democracy

"Defensive democracy"Second World WarAfterGermanyA democracy that does not recognize freedom of speech or rights that deny liberal democracy such as communism and fascism. (West) The German Federal Constitutional Court ruled in a ruling that "the enemy of liberty does not allow unlimited freedom".German Communist PartyHas been forcibly dissolved since 1956[16].


Ancient timesMore times or regions orcommunityAnd diverseCollaborative systemAndLaw,RulesBased onConsensus building,Decision makingThere were, but generally democracy (democracy,DemocracyThe origin of democracy)Ancient greeceandAncient romeAnd democracy in the modern senseEnlightenment Thought,LiberalismAffected by them,French Revolution,American Independence RevolutionIs formed through20st centuryHas expanded to many countries and regions.

The Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek OfAthensThen,Civil societybyDirect democracyWas done. Participation of the civil society is all adult men with Athenian citizenship, not slaves, women, or migrants.Majority voteWas decided by.

In AthensMonarchyからAristocratic systemAfter the transition toAreopagus ConferenceWas controlled by the Senate,Civil societyHad limited powers.B.C.In the 7th centuryDriving contestIs conventionalunwritten law, And the monopoly of legal knowledge by aristocrats was destroyed. 6th century BC,SolonBans the fall of citizens into slavery,Civil societyLegislation admitting to participate in (reformation of Solon) clearly divided the citizens and slaves, and guaranteed freedom and equality among the citizens thereafter.[17].. Then in the 5th century BC,Crayness tyrantHippiersExiled from the tribal system by the conventional blood relationship to the residential area (Demos, Which became the origin of democracy)Council of XNUMX peopleInstallation of theExpulsion of ceramic piecesEstablished the foundation of democracy. In 462 BC,PericlesEtc.Areopagus ConferenceDeprived of authority.

HoweverPersian Warrear,SophistCitizen trial for criticism such asSocratesIs executed,PlatoIs democracyPopular politicsThought to be in danger of falling intoTetsujin politicsInsisted. Alsoア リ ス ト テ レ スArgued for six politics, and in Politia (national system), "to treat equal things equally" was the essence of justice, and emphasized equality among citizens and mutual control (political control), but control of the master's slaves Advocated for (master control) and control of parents' children (royal control)[18].. In contrast to thisStore school TheNatural lawPreached the equality of all humans, including slaves by[18].

After the decline of ancient Greece, including Athens, democracy (mass control) was considered to be a non-rational form of government for a long time.

Ancient rome

Ancient romeSo, I didn't use the word democracy, which was used in ancient Greece, because it meant popular politics.RepublicAfter the transitionSenateAnd the commonersCivil societyBecomes the decision-making body,Roman lawHas been established,DictatorshipTo preventConsulSuch asParliamentary SecretaryHas a limited term of office. So-calledImperial RomeEven after the transition toRoman emperor TheHead(Pudding)Met.

509 BC, ancient Rome expelled the kingRepublic RomeHowever, the struggle for the status of the aristocracy and the commoner continued, and the commoner was protected in 494 BC.CivilianWas founded and given veto rights, 287 BC Hortensius methodThe civil society became its own legislative body,Grax brothersSuch reforms have failed. AlsoRoman citizenshipWas expanded to conquered peoples, etc.Antonian edictWas expanded to all free people (adult men) in the Empire.

キ ケ ロIs the Senate (government agency), the Consular Officer (head of state), and the civil society (parliament).Separation of powerI thought. Since modern times, the SenateSenate,House of Representatives,Pudding TheHeadAnd Roman law becomes European law (Common law, Yus Commune).

中 世

中 世Then.Roman churchSuch as religious authorityTheory of royal godな どAbsolute monarchyBecame dominant, but in EuropeCity state,Ancient romeDue to the influence of theElection monarchy,Parliament, There were democratic concepts and institutions such as autonomy. The main examples, including those from ancient times, are:

Formation of modern nation and enlightenment thought

13th century,Kingdom of EnglandMagna CartaStipulates restrictions on the royal authority. Since the 16th century,Jack-Benigne Bossue,Robert Filmer Theory of royal godOf political power(I.e.Proclaiming independence from power,Jean BodinAdvocated "state sovereignty", 1648 Westphalia ConventionDue to the modern different from the Middle AgesSovereign stateWas established[19].

Since the 17th century,Enlightenment ThoughtbyLiberalismIs claimed,VoltaireAdvocated liberalism and human equality. 17th century,Puritan RevolutionAnd the Rivera BaezGeneral electionRequested. Social contract theory was advocated as a theory of human democracy.HobbsHis social contract theory sought the legitimacy of power to the ruled people, not to God, but did not envision the rule of the people. nextJohn RockThe social contract theory of theAmerican Independence RevolutionInfluenced[20]. AlsoJean-Jacques RousseauThe social contract theory of theGeneral intentionTo create (public me), criticize the representative system, and present the idea of ​​direct democracy[21], Influenced the later French Revolution.MontescueConsiders how bourgeoisie, especially the freedom of the intellectual class, is guaranteed from the tyranny of power.Separation of three powersEnvisioned[22].

American Independence Revolution

1775 years,American Independence RevolutionThere has occurred. In North American British colonies, Milton, due to dissatisfaction with the heavy tax on colonies and import restrictionsHarrington,On the rocksLearn the theory of basic human rights and representative system ("No taxation without representative)) was established. 1776 Thomas JeffersonWas drafted byDeclaration of American IndependenceSo social contract theory, popular sovereignty,Right of resistance (right of revolution)Was adopted as a clear political principle.Each colony has established a system as a republic, such as the establishment of a constitution.Town meetingな どDirect democracyThe tradition of was formed. EspeciallyPennsylvania,VirginiaThe constitution of the Republic, etc. was strongly warned as reflecting the will of the people, strongly provoking the superiority of parliament, and strengthening the federal government would lead to tyranny.[23].

Financial crisis after the Revolutionary War,Birthless classIn the midst of political unrest due to the rise of the colony, the productive class reviewed the independence and autonomy of each colonial republic and set out to establish a powerful central federal government. Adopted in 1787United States ConstitutionThinks that the power of the majority should also be vigilant, and emphasizes thorough separation of power and stability of social order, and is superior to the bicameral system of parliament, the administrative power of a powerful president independent of parliament, and legislation. Established jurisdiction. As a result, a system centered on bourgeoisie was established.[23]. afterwards,Jeffersonian democracyJacksonian democracyBecame two major trends, and as the mass society smashed the parliamentary systemGrassroots democracyWas also advocated.

We consider the following facts self-evident. That is to say, all are by nature equal and all are given the right to be invaded by God, which includes the pursuit of life, freedom and happiness. As a guarantee of that right, the consent of what the government establishes and governs among the people is the source of its legitimate power. And when any government violates its purpose, it has the right as a nation to change or abolish it and launch a new government. — Declaration of American Independence (1776)
All constitutional authority previously held by the King of Britain came from and was held by the people by contract for the common good of society as a whole. — Virginia Constitution (1776)

French Revolution

From 1789French RevolutionThen,1791 ConstitutionHuman democracy,General intention, Sovereignty split transfer is clarified. Further1793 Constitution(JacobinThe Constitution created a constitution that was strongly influenced by Rousseau, such as the right of resistance and the element of direct democracy, but it was not implemented.

(Declaration of the rights of people and citizens)

  • Article 1 Human beings are born and live in equality in freedom and rights. (Omitted)
  • Article 3 Essential to all sovereignty lies the people. (Omitted)
  • Article 6 The law is a statement of general intention. All citizens have the right to cooperate in their creation, either personally or by their representative. (Omitted)

(Constitution[Annotation 1]

  • Article 11 There is one sovereignty, which cannot be divided, cannot be handed over, and is not subject to prescription.Sovereignty belongs to the people.. (Omitted)
  • Article 56 In France, there is no right to dominate the authority of law. Only in the name of law can a king rule by law and force him to obey. — France 1791 Constitution[24]

(Declaration of human and civil rights)

  • Article 33 Resistance to oppression is a natural consequence of other human rights.


  • Article 7 The sovereign people are the collective body of French citizens.
  • Article 10 Sovereign people discuss the law. — France 1793 Constitution[25]


From the 18th century to the 20th century, male general elections and full general elections including females spread in major countries. EspeciallyWorld War I,Second World War TheTotal warNext, women's social advancement will progress,Ethnic self-determinationRaisingColonyContinued independence,Sovereign stateWas born.

Since the 19th century, the bourgeois democracy is deceived and the violent revolution is advocated from the socialist trend.Communism(Marx-Leninism) Appeared, the communist camp changed to the capitalist camp.ImperialismCriticized the capitalist campCommunist partyOne-party dictatorshipCriticized. Furthermore, after World War II, in Italyfascism,GermanyThen.NazismEmerged,Nationalism,nationalismAnd criticized democracy.

2007 years,United Nations General AssemblyAugust 9thInternational Democracy DayAnd thanked all member states and groups for their contributions to public awareness.[27].


Though there are many ideas, opinions, and statements regarding democracy, the world-famous ones are as follows.


5th century BC,Persian WarAt the time ofPersianThe greatXerxes IAnd ex in exile in PersiaSpartanKing'sDemaratosFrom the dialogue. General at that timeDespotismThe Persian king of the basic rule of governance is fear,自由I think that is a state of being left alone and out of control, but exceptionallyLaw (Nomos)United under the authority of自由Consisting of a group of people chantingPoliceThen, there was autonomy based on equal relations under the law, and speech was a tool to move people, and the freedom of police allowed citizens to participate in politics.[28].

(Xerxes I) Demaratos, what a ridiculous thing do you say that a thousand soldiers fight against such a large army? (Omitted) If they were not all under the command of one conductor, but everything was uniformly free, then how could they oppose such a great army? (Omitted) If he is under the command of one person, he may exert more power than he is capable of because he fears the commander. However, if you leave it to yourself, you wouldn't do either of them.
(Demaratos) They are free, but they do not claim to be free in any way. They areLaw (Nomos)The fact that they are afraid of this is not the point where the servants of the lord fear the lord. In any case, they will act according to the command of this lord, but there is always one command of this lord, that is, no matter what kind of army the lord may face It means that you should stay in Fumi and control the enemy or let yourself be defeated. — Herodotus"History'[28]


5th century BC, AncientAthensLeader ofPericlesFrom the funeral speech by. Majorityfair,Legal equality, Freedom of private life,Rule of lawAnd so on were claimed as the ideal of police.

Our government does not follow the systems of other countries. Instead of following one's ideals, one is able to learn and follow my example. Its name is to protect the fairness of the majority by eliminating the monopoly of the minority.Democratic politicsCalled. In Japan, if a dispute arises between individuals, all people are allowed to make equal statements by law. However, if an individual turns out to be highly talented, he or she will be given a high public position according to the ability of the individual to disregard unreasonable equality. Also, even if you try to be poor, if you have the power to benefit the police, you will not be blocked because of your poverty. We have a free and open path, and enjoy free lives every day without fear of suspicion. (Omitted) In our lives, we do not add elbows to each other, but when it comes to public matters, we are deeply ashamed of our behavior that violates the law. In keeping with the politics of the times, we must respect the law and respect the law that saves those who are invaded, and the unwritten law that makes everyone shy.
Taken together, our entire police is a manifestation of the ideals that the Greeks should pursue, and each and every citizen of us shall be aware of the broader activities of life, of the dignity of the free man, and of his own reign. I think you can expect the maturity of. — Tuquidides"War history"[29]


4th century BC,PlatoIs a work "Country], the nationalOligarchyThe next stage of the democracy, but collapsed due to excessive freedomDecencyAnd the idealTetsujin politics"[30]..When the climate of freedom reaches its peak, anarchy prevails and a dictator is born from among the popular leaders.[31].

People (of a democratic state) are free, and that state is full of freedom of action and freedom of speech. I suppose that no matter how many people (nanpito) are allowed to do whatever they want. (Omitted) Too much liberty does not change anywhere, regardless of individual or state, other than oversubscription. The decency system does not seem to come from a national system other than a democratic system. In my opinion, extreme freedom seems to cause the largest and most intense slavery. — Plato"Country] Volume XNUMX[30]

ア リ ス ト テ レ ス

4th century BC,ア リ ス ト テ レ スIs a work "politics"soPolitical systemWere classified into 6 regimes depending on the number of rulers and whether they were in common interest.[32].. Aristotle thinks that the best political system in reality is Politia (a national system of Polis), which is a mixture of oligarchy and democracy. The role of the middle class who experienced both rule and obedience was the basis of stability[33].. On the other handDemocracyIs "Free manIs a ruler with many people who were born without property and are rulers."DemocracyTo ensure the rule of lawCivil societyIs open only exceptionally, because if the people are farmers, they have the right but not the leisure time to participate in politics.DemocracyIs moderate, but if the people are craftsmen, merchants, day laborers,DemocracyIs prone to extreme forms[32].. The prerequisites for democratic politics are "freedom", "change of government and power", "equality", "Majority votePrinciples"[34].

Aristotle's Six Politics [33]
Dominance by one personControlled by minorityDominance by majority[Annotation 2]
A (good) regime that serves common interestsBasileia monarchyAristocratia AristocracyPoliteia (the national system of Politeia Police,Republic
Politics that does not match the common interestsTyrannis PresidencyOligarchia OligarchyDemocratia Democracy
The fundamental principle of democratic national system is free. And one of the freedoms is to control or control in order. This is because democratic "positiveness" means having equivalence not according to the value of people, but according to the number of people, but ...sovereigntyIt is the final, and right, decision of a greater number of people, regardless of what, of course. (...) The following is democratic--that is, that all people elect all the officials from all, that they all control one person on the one hand and the individual on the other hand. People in turn control all people, no roles qualify for any property at all, or a minimum amount of qualification, the same person never takes any role... ... that poor people do not take control more than wealthy people, or that all people are equal in number, not just sovereign poor people ... That is why people would believe that there is equality and freedom in the national system. — ア リ ス ト テ レ ス"politics"Chapter 6[34]
It is best for the national community to be dominated by intermediate people, and dictatorship arises from an inexperienced violent democracy and an oligarchy, but the intermediate national system and Much less often comes from small things. — ア リ ス ト テ レ ス"politics』Volume 4 Chapter 11[35]


PolubiosIsHistory, And analyzed why Rome established hegemony in a short period of time. If the royal government, aristocratic government, and democratic government continue to fall for a long time, they will fall into predominant politics, oligarchy, and folly politics due to corruption and institutional aging, respectively. The six governments circulate forever (political circulation theory). However, the Romans thought that any national system would decline as long as it was based on a single principle, and made the three institutions, the Consular Officer, the Senate, and the civil society, carry royal, aristocratic, and democratic elements, respectively. I thought that political stability was achieved by building a political system. Aristotle envisioned a national system (politia) that put a mixture of oligarchy and democracy with a focus on the balance between the rich and the poor, while Polybios emphasized the balance of institutions. This mixed politics (Separation of power) Became an important model of the subsequent political theory[17].

キ ケ ロ

1st century BC,Republic Rome OfMarcus Turius CiceroIt is,CaesarHe was wary of the dictatorship by the government and aimed at a republican system centered on the idea of ​​law. Cicero, in his book "Law," describes the lost idea of ​​republicStore school OfNatural lawIt was argued that a community of reason, reinforced by ideas and encompassing all human beings, was the foundation of law and society, not individual nations.[36].. The Greek democracy, which emphasized the direct political participation of citizens, was shown to show social participation through the law in the Republic Rome.[36].. Cicero was later praised as a democracy leader by Montesquieu and Voltaire in the 18th century[37].


16st century Niccolo MachiavelliIs a work "Monarchy"soRealismTypicalPolitical theoryInsisted.

The public is always looking only at their appearance and judging only by the consequences of events. — Niccolo Machiavelli"Monarchy"Chapter 18[38]


17st century OfPuritan RevolutionIn the age ofThomas HobbsIs conventionalTheory of royal godAgainstSocial contract theoryAnd sought the legitimacy of power from the people. Hobbes wrote "Leviathan』In "human rights as humans"Natural rightAll human beings are naturally free and equal, but the natural state isThe struggle for everyonefor,Rule of lawInsist that a obedience contract was signed to realizeBasic human rightsConnected to[39].. However, Hobbes said that each individual abandoned all the rights to exercise natural rights and entrusted them to the sovereign sovereign (king), andRight of resistance,SuffrageDenied[40].

Natural rights are the freedom of each person to use his own power as he desires to maintain his own nature, his life. Therefore, with his own judgmentreasonIn that, you are free to do whatever seems most appropriate for that. — Thomas Hobbs"Leviathan"Chapter 14[39]

On the rocks

17st century OfHonorary revolutionIn the ageJohn RockIs a work "Second theory of governance, Etc., human beings have natural rights, but to protect the order of society,trustBy政府If the government violates the will of the people,Right of resistance (right of revolution)Exercised to change the government[41].. Lock is humanreasonByNatural lawIt is possible to live in accordance with the above, and a part of the natural right (interpretation right) is entrusted to the nation by a social contract, but other natural rights are reserved, and the public authority infringes the life, freedom and property of the private person. Affirmed the right to fight and resist the breach of governance[42]. AlsoHarringtonAdvocated bySeparation of powerControl system,legislationRight andAdministrationSeparation of rights and possessing legislative power国会Has been traditionally formed in Britain, claiming to have supreme powerConstitutionalism-Separation of power-ParliamentaryismWas theorized from social contract theory[42].


18st century,Jean-Jacques RousseauIs a work "Human inequality origin theory], [Emile (Rousseau)], [Social contract theory, Etc., human beings are naturally free, but the government isGeneral intentionI have to follow. The general intention is to "consider only common interests", and is different from the general intention, which is the sum of special intentions, to be "always fair and positive toward public benefit".[43].sovereigntyIs the exercise of general intention, and cannot be transferred, divided, or deviated from the general intention. RousseauSovereignThe people, claiming that they should continue to exercise legislative powers,Member) Was criticized as a product of political corruption since the Middle Ages[44].. In addition, although all politics have their own characteristics and drawbacks, it is necessary to separate at least the executive authority and the legislative authority, and it is decided that the form of the government and the enforcer should be decided by voting at regular meetings.[45].. Rousseau's theory of social contracts differs significantly from Hobbes and Locke in that the Greek police were ideal, and when transformation by social contracts was impossible, genius legislatorsDictatorshipHe also advocates the forced creation of general will byDirect democracyPresented the idea of[46].

Humans are naturally free, but everywhere they are tethered to iron chains. Some believe that they are the masters of others, but the fact is more slavery than them. National order is a sacred right and underlies all other rights. Nevertheless, this right does not come from nature and is therefore based on some consensus. (Omitted) Even the strongest are not strong enough to be rulers at all times, if they do not turn their power into their rights and their obedience to him into duty. (Omitted) For self-preservation, there is no other way than gathering forces to create a sum of forces, overcoming resistance of obstacles, moving these forces with only one motive force, and acting together. There is no. — Jean-Jacques Rousseau"The Social Contract Theory" Vol. 1[47]
(The British) think they are free, which is a big mistake. They are free only during the election of their members, and as soon as they are elected, they become slaves. (...) Sovereignty cannot be represented for the same reason that sovereignty cannot be handed over. It essentially lies in the general will. And the will is not represented. The intent belongs to me or others. There is no middle ground. Therefore, the representatives of the people are neither representative of nor will they represent the general will. They are nothing but their servants. They cannot definitively decide anything. Any law that the people have not ratified is invalid. That is not the law. — Jean-Jacques Rousseau[44]


18st century,Charles de MontescueStudied comparatively many governance systems,BourgeoisieIn particular, in order to guarantee the freedom of the knowledge class from the tyranny of power, the division of power that does not allow the same person or group to monopolize legislation, administration, or justice (Separation of three powers) Was envisioned. Further legislationHouse of CommonsAristocratThe administration was carried out by the royal king, and the judiciary was a purely theoretical operation that was arbitrary and considered to have no power. Corresponding to the three classes of kingship[46].


18st century Voltaire TheEnlightenmentAsLiberalismAnd claimed the essential equality of people.

  • Every person is equal. It's not the birth, it's the virtue that makes it different[37].
  • People must be wise to do modern politics[37].
  • I disagree with your opinion, but the right to claim it comes to life. — Voltaire

Francois Gizo

Francois Pierre Guillaume Guiseau TheGeneral electionMade the following statement to a demonstrator seekingFrench February RevolutionBecame one of the factors.

If you want the right to vote, be rich! — Francois Pierre Guillaume Guiseau[37]


Abraham LincolnOf 1863Gettysburg speechThe following speech was made famous.

In order not to waste the death of these brave ancestors, create new freedom under God, andPolitics and governance for the people by the peopleMust make a high determination not to be lost from the earth. — Abraham Lincoln


From the late 18th century to the early 19th century,Jeremy BenthamRejected abstract theories such as natural rights and social contracts,UtilitarianismFrom the standpoint ofMaximum happiness of the largest numberThe state should exist to the extent necessary for personal security.Necessary evilAs,Men's general electionSuggested[48].


19st centuryToJohn Stuart MillStands for utilitarianism like Bentham, but emphasizes individual mental freedom and suppresses minority freedomTyranny by majorityUnequal elections that give more than one vote to educated people and minorities may elect a representativeProportional representationSuggested[49].


19st century Alexi de TocquevilleAs a liberal politicianSocialismAgainst radical republicanism,American democracy』Evaluate the equality of democratic politics, while equalization of individuals leads to collective anonymous despotismMass democracyPointed out the tendency[50].

The fact is that everybody in the United States finds a kind of personal interest in complying with (obeying) the law. This is because there are hopes that those who do not belong to the majority today will probably be in the line tomorrow. — Alexi de Tocqueville"American democracy"Chapter 6[51].
There is controversy as long as many are suspicious (in the United States), but once a firm voice is expressed, each person silences. (Omitted) (The power that governs America) is hurt by even a few criticisms, and it rages when it hurts even a little. (Omitted) Many live in self-praise. (...) There is no freedom of mind in America. — Alexi de Tocqueville"American democracy"Chapter 7[50]


3nd generationPresident of the United States OfThomas JeffersonIt is,RepublicTo promote democracy and equality of political opportunity,State authorityWith a focus on, he agreed with the federal government's restriction of authority.

OurGood choiceIf you trust us and forget your concerns about the security of our rights, that is a dangerous misconception. Trust is always a tyranny parent. A free government is built on suspicion, not trust. It is not trust, but suspicion, that binds those who need to trust power with a restricted regime. WeFederal constitution, Therefore, only establishes the limits of our confidence. When it comes to power, it is therefore necessary not to listen to trust in people and to detain them by the chain of the Constitution so that they do not commit delinquency. — Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions,Year 1776


Vladimir LeninIs the work "State and revolution, Then the nationClass conflictIt is an organization for suppressing the controlled class of the ruling class that occurred with, such as bourgeois parliamentaryism.Small bourgeoisDemocracy is a deception, and the bourgeois nation is the key to achieving socialism.Violent revolutionCrush byProletarian dictatorshipThen you have to doSocialist state ThecommuneType nation, under which democracy further developed,CommunismWith the transition to societyThe nation diesInsisted[52].

資本主義Democracy in society is always a minority,Precarious class, Only for the rich. — Vladimir Lenin[37]
  • Only once in a few years to decide which members of the ruling class oppress and overrun the people in parliament-in this respect the true essence of bourgeois parliamentaryism in the most democratic republics, including parliamentary constitutional countries. is there. (Omitted) The way out of the parliamentary system, of course, is not to abolish the representative body and the election system, but to convert the representative body from a chatting hut into an "action" group. "The commune had to be an activist body that was both an executive and legislative body, not a parliamentary body."[53].
  • (In the name of societyMeans of productionAfter taking control of,Socialist revolutionWe all know that (in later times) the "national" political form of this period was the most complete democracy. (...) Democracy is also a nation, and so when a nation dies, democracy also vanishes. (Omitted) Every nation is a "special force to suppress" the oppressed class. So every nation is crippled and non-people[54]. — Vladimir Lenin"State and revolution"


Lev TrotskyIt is,StalinismHe said that socialism needed democracy.

Socialism requires democracy. Just as the human body needs oxygen. — Lev Trotsky[37]


Benito MussoliniCriticized both liberalism and socialism,fascismAdvocated.

Democracy is beautiful in theory and false in practice. You will see an American figure like that one day. — Benito Mussolini -1928


Adolf HitlerIs the book "My struggle』And the masses are effective, not rationalpropagandaParliamentary democracy is a deception, and GermanyLeadership principleInsisted that a leader by.Power seizureAfter that, dictatorship,ReferendumPost approval was frequently used.

The overwhelming majority of the people are feminine traits and attitudes, who decide their thoughts and actions with emotional sensations, rather than with calm deliberation. But this feeling is not complicated, it is very simple and closed. Rather than discriminating things, there is only positive or negative, love or hate, justice or evil, truth or lies, half correct, half different, etc. Is never possible. — Adolf Hitler"My struggle"

Carl Schmitt

JuristCarl SchmittThinks that it is democracy to do the politics that the people want,Adolf HitlerRated as most democratic[37].


1947 years,Winston Churchill TheHouse of RepresentativesIn the speech, democracy was terribleMonarchyHe said the dictatorship was worse.

Many political systems have been tried in the past, and will continue to be tried in this world, which is full of error and sadness. No one can pretend that democracy is complete and wise. In fact, democracy can be described as the worst form of politics. Except for all forms of democracy that have been attempted so far, but not democracy. — Winston Churchill, 1947 House of Representatives[37]


Friedrich HayekFrom the standpoint of liberalism,RationalismCriticizeRule of lawMarket economyWas claimed to be the two main principles.

Under democracy, unless we form a moral tradition of community, a common idea shared by many,Rule of lawDoes not spread.[37]

Francis Fukuyama

Francis FukuyamaOf 1991Collapse of the Soviet UnionThen, democracy finally won in the international community.End of historyHowever, there have been ethnic and religious conflicts since then.[37].

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the ideological confrontation over the social system ended, democracy became the final form of the political system, and it became a system that can exist forever. — Francis Fukuyama[37]


In a minority-controlled group, the system may depend on the efficiency and convenience of the ruler, but in a democratic system in which the majority is dominant, a system for realizing control (decision-making) by the majority and suppressing the occurrence of dictatorship or tyranny. Therefore, there are many philosophies, institutions and discussions historically. Under the influence of modern political thought, the political system theory of modern nations aims at mutual restraint (separation of power) so as not to interfere with the freedom of the people, legitimacy that it is an institution for the people, integration of the people, etc. However, concrete institutions are not always theoretical products, but also products of various traditions and history.[55].

Before modern times

The Ancient Greek OfAthensThen, the citizen is the sovereign,Civil societyCentered onDirect democracyWas done. AlsotyrantFor prevention of dictatorshipExpulsion of ceramic piecesAnd so on.Republic of romeThen,Roman citizenIs the sovereign,SenateRoman Civil SocietyWill become the decision-making body and prevent dictatorship from occurringConsulOr in an emergencyDictatorThe term was fixed term. 13th century Kingdom of EnglandThen due to the restriction of kingshipMagna CartaWas enacted,ConstitutionalismBecame a pioneer of.



ParliamentaryismIs a system of political management in which political initiative is given to the parliament. In this case, the parliament is a congress body composed of elected members who are "representatives of the people". Is the authority to administer[55].. The medieval parliament is not a parliamentary parliament because it is not a national representation but an advisory body. In addition, even if the initiative of the parliament is recognized in the constitution, the administrative power cannot be controlled in the actual operation.DictatorshipIt cannot be said that parliamentaryism is established, but conversely, it can be said that parliamentaryism is established if the customs that the parliament elects the cabinet can be established even in an advisory body.[56].. The parliament began in the Middle Ages with the regular convocation of status-based parliaments such as aristocrats, monks, and commoners in each country of the Middle Ages.Feudal systemWas abolished due to the collapse and establishment of an absolute royal government,Bourgeois revolutionAfter the overthrow of the royal government, the modern parliament was born. However, in Britain the relatively calm progress of the bourgeois revolution has made the status council a modern parliamentary representation.[56].

Majority rule

The modern parliament is an institution that integrates society by coordinating individual political assertions, which is based on the free and rational debate and persuasion of the representatives of society as a whole, and the accumulation of compromises. When the consensus cannot be obtained due to the urgency of the political problem to be actually solved, the opinion of the relative majority is provisionally adopted as the will of the parliament as a collective decision-making tool.[56].. However, from the perspective of parliamentary integration, the difference between the majority and the minority should always be relative, and the possibility of reversal due to future situation changes and debate needs to be reserved. Even if a parliamentary system is adopted, (a)RelativismOf social values ​​to society (society in which multiple values ​​can be recognized) (b) Unitary homogeneity of members of the Diet and the social members behind it (class,Religious,ideology(Society in which conflicts are not severe) (c) Parliamentarians who can make rational and objective decisions (d) Freedom to express opinions and equal opportunities, etc. Do[56].

Representative system principle

Since the members of the modern parliament are "representatives of the people," their will is the intention of the entire nation, but the meaning of "representative" has a fundamental ideological conflict since the Bourgeois Revolution.[56].

British Whig PartyClaim,Emmanuel-Joseph SieyesByFrance 1791 ConstitutionEtc. is the origin. As a representative of all citizens, each politician conducts political activities for all citizens andConstituencyThinking that they should not work for the sake of their interests such asrecallDirect democratic institutions such as are prohibited. Representatives of this principle do not have to be specifically tied to the actual will of the people, so even the members elected by status-based or restricted elections can represent the people.[56].
The origin was various representatives of the medieval status council, and emphasized the representativeness of local members.British Tory Party, Rousseau, whose moral citizens should have indicated their general will at a direct democratic rally, reflecting their thoughtsFrench 1793 ConstitutionSee examples in. Each councilor is a representative who is entrusted by a certain number of people who actually exist, and the parliament views it as a microcosm of society as a whole. All legislators are directly elected in the general election, and they should faithfully represent and insist on the willingness of the elected mother in the parliament. Therefore, if the intention of the elected mother is violated, a recall will be allowed. Since it is difficult to persuade or compromise by debate, it is difficult to recruit other than small communities with high homogeneity.The United States of America OfTown meetingHave inherited the spirit[56].

Bicameral system

In England, the home of parliamentary politics, the history of the medieval status council's continuous evolution into modern parliamentAristocratHouse of Commons OfBicameral systemHowever, the purpose and character of the bicameral system varies from country to country.[57].

The bicameral system is a system based on the separation of power and liberalism.communeIt is criticized from the standpoint of democracy rather than liberalism such as theory. AlsoPolitical partyDue to the decrease in personality differences between the two institutions due to the development of[57].

Useless if you make the same resolution as in the House, and harmful if you make a different resolution — Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes (1789)[57]

Separation of power

Since the modern state is a product of the bourgeois revolution, some sort of power separation system has been adopted due to the idea of ​​liberalism and vigilance against the power of selfishness. However, there are multiple patterns depending on the history and circumstances of each country.[58].

  • Parliamentary Cabinet System -Establishing and surviving the executive government (Cabinet) with the confidence of the parliament and making it responsible for the parliament[58]
  • Presidential system -Independent election of the executive branch (the president) and direct responsibility to the people[58]
  • Parliamentary system -Completely subordinate the executive branch to parliament and disclaim its responsibilities (such as Switzerland)

Parliamentary Cabinet System

Formed in 18th century England. The king's administrative power gradually moved to the minister, and the king's approval was obtained in 1742.Robert WalpoleThe prime minister resigned because of distrust in the parliament, and the custom that the minister could not work without confidence in the parliament was established. After that, the principle of solidarity and the system of establishing a cabinet by the nomination of the Prime Minister of Parliament were established.[58].. In the parliamentary cabinet system, the parliament controls the cabinet in nominating the establishment of the cabinet and pursuing the responsibility of the cabinet.Dissolution of parliamentCan question the confidence of the constituency in the parliament, and a restraint and equilibrium will be established between them.[58].. Such a British-style parliamentary systemWestminsterAlso called a model.

  • Advantages-(1) Able to achieve the principle of parliamentaryism (2) Policy can be promoted by cooperation between the parliament and the cabinet (3) Responsibility of the cabinet = Responsibility of the majority of the parliament is clear, and it is easy to pursue responsibility by the election of the people[58].
  • Cons-Due to the majority of parliamentary organizing the cabinet, the budget and bills of the cabinet are easily passed,OppositionIs difficult to pursue (the separation of power is insufficient.Two-party systemThen, this detrimental effect is alleviated by the separation of power by the change of government.)[58]

Presidential system

It was founded as a political system in the United States. The president is elected by an indirect election (substantially a direct election) of the people, and there is no dismissal during his term of office except for the impeachment resolution. While the parliament cannot pursue the responsibility of the president, the president cannot disband it. Moreover, although the president does not have the right to submit a bill to the parliament,VetoThere is (established regardless of refusal if both houses re-passed by more than two-thirds).

  • Pros-Thorough separation of powers (concentration of strong administrative authority over the president against the backdrop of strong legitimacy of being directly chosen by all people)[58]
  • Disadvantages-(1) Inefficiency due to conflict between legislative office and executive branch (2) President and parliamentary majority can blame each other for affairs (3) Danger of president becoming dictator in a country where democracy has not been established[58]

There are few countries that adopt the American-style pure presidential system, but there are many ceremonial symbolic presidential systems such as Germany, Italy, and Switzerland. France was chosen by a direct referendum, has powerful powers such as the right to appoint prime minister and the right to dissolve parliament, and is considered to be a mixed form of the parliamentary cabinet system and presidential system.[58].

Political party

The political party is England in the 17th centuryHonorary revolutionWas born before and afterTory partyWhig partyIs the first, but until the latter half of the 19th century, so-called noble parties (Noble family party), "Fortune and culture" is a salon-like group with a certain hierarchy, especiallyPlatformThere was no organization or organization, and the binding force for individual members of the Diet was very loose.[59].General electionAfter the implementationPopular party(Organizational Party) has a large number of general party members nationwide in addition to the members of the Diet, has a platform and a role organization, and finances by party expenses. Although they are provided, these detentions are not originally accepted from the modern parliamentary principle that "members debate and vote as completely free individuals."Rousseau,Washington,JeffersonChanted political party denial[59].

General elections progress from modern bourgeois state to modernPopular nationWhen it was transformed, the traditional "individually individual" property and the educated bourgeoisie parliamentaryism became a mere mess, and the political party (popular party) appeared as a medium for politically organizing voters and candidates. Political parties were born as private associations, but under certain conditions ((1) ordinary election system and parliamentary (2)Multi-party systemIt can be said that it plays a public role when meeting the existence of (3) party democracy)[59].. Also, the free delegation of modern parliamentary democracy was forced to be revised in the mass society, and the proportion of the population in the election system became important in order to correctly reflect the will of the voters in the parliament.[59].

Political parties bring order into a chaotic group of candidates. — James Bryce"Modern Democratic Politics"[59]

Profit group

Interest groups (pressure groups) are more distant from modern parliamentarianism than political parties, and are criticized as being distorting public opinion and politics by specific interest groups, but due to the decline in the role of parliament as an integrated body, It also has the side of encouraging direct demands to the parliament and executive branch. The outbreak of interest groups in the 19th century AmericalobbyistThe functions of interest groups include a function representative function, a policy checking function, a politician training function, and an education function for group members. The classification of profit groups is generally the following three classifications by RT Mackenzie.[60].


Democracy(Democracy, Democracy), there are many discussions, including the interpretation of the terms and concepts themselves, but the main elements of the discussion are as follows, and each element is related to each other.


In democracy, members make important decisions about the group, so the legitimacy and scope of the members are debated. Democracy treats a certain range (homogeneity) equally, so unless all human beings are covered, those outside the range (heterogeneity) will be distinguished and excluded.[61].

The Ancient Greek OfPoliceThen,CitizenIs supposed to be a police force, and thereforeHeavy infantryOnly adult male free people with certain assets that can bear equipment and military affairs at their own expense, etc. are considered as citizens, and as a general rule, immigrants, slaves, women, migrants and descendants from other police are excluded. HoweverThe Battle of SalamisGalleyThe contribution of the rowers also helped the non-residents raise their voices.Republic of romeThen.Roman citizenshipGradually expanded to controlled ethnic groups and regions,AugustusSince then, it has been expanded to include children of state-owned citizens after the completion of military serviceAntonian edictWas expanded to all free people in the Roman Empire.

In parliamentary democracy by the modern bourgeois democracy, it is said that "citizens with reason and culture" are discussed and decided in the parliament, and therefore "citizens with reason and culture."Precarious classOnly adult men inRestricted electionsWas done.French human rights declarationThen all human beings were universally regarded as equal with human rights, but even after that, there are no sovereignty rights for non-partiles, women, colonial residents, etc.General election,Female suffrageOrColonyIndependence has advanced. In many eras and regions since the French Revolution言语-People-ReligiousDue to social homogeneity such asnationalismWas the idea of ​​integrationNation-stateBecame popular, but on the other handminority,heathen,Foreigner,refugeesDiscrimination against and exclusion has also occurred. In modern realistic democracy, national consciousness is higher than universal human rights due to national homogeneity principle.[61].. Some even todayColony,Protected country,DependentThere is no right to suffice for the country.Foreigner suffrageCorrespondence varies depending on the country.

Representative system

Parliamentary democracy(Representative democracy,Indirect democracy), there are several trends in elections and the positioning of lawmakers.[56].

AthensThen all the citizensCivil societyOr by the elected councilorCouncil of XNUMX peopleThere was such a thing. In republic of Rome,SenateCivil societyIs the currentAristocrat(Senate)WhenHouse of Commons(House of Representatives) Was the origin.

There is much debate about the representative system principle. From the perspective of emphasizing indirect democracy, voters vote for the people they think are appropriate, and it is said that the elected legislators and president are trusted as representatives of all members, and they freely discuss and decide according to their own reason and knowledge. .. From this point of view, the status of members of the Diet is guaranteed until the next election, there is no opportunity to reflect public opinion until the next election, and the election system and political parties are not emphasized. On the other hand, from the viewpoint of emphasizing direct democracy, the ideal is direct participation, but even when electing members, it is not a confidence but a limited delegation, and if a member goes against the will of a voter, recall etc. are also allowed. Be done.

The modern liberal bourgeois democracy warns against dictatorship by power, and the first election was a restricted election by only adult men of the productive class, who were considered to be "reasons and educated citizens". As a separation of powers, the separation of powers and the bicameral system were also adopted. From this point of view, the general election was wary of majority rule by the birthless class.Rousseau,Washington,JeffersonChanted political party denial[59].. However, as the general election became a mass society, the homogeneity of society declined due to class conflicts, and the parliament became a mere corpse.In order to send the supporting forces to the parliament,Political partyAnd evenPressure groupHas increased in importance.

Reflecting the will of the people (DemocracyFrom the standpoint of placing more emphasis onGeneral election,Female suffrageExpansion of civil rights, superiority of parliament (Parliamentaryism), direct democratic elements (Initiative,recall,Referendum) And so on.Jean-Jacques RousseauClaims the deception of parliamentary democracy (indirect democracy),France 1793 Constitution(JacobinThe constitution adopted a direct democratic element. In many countries and organizations, referendums have come to be used together for particularly important decisions.

Vladimir Lenin TheAvant-garde party(Communist party) Represents the majority of workers and farmersOne-party dictatorshipWas done (Leninism,Party leadership). AlsoAdolf HitlerAsserted himself as the leader of the German people and dictated (Leadership principle),Carl Schmitt TheAdolf HitlerWas rated the most democratic. The positions and ideas that criticize these dictatorships include liberalism,Pluralism,Empiricism,ConservatismAndRule of law,Separation of powerand so on.

Democracy was born as a group of ancient Greek political theory, and it was the essence of mutual control by free and equal citizens.Civil societyIn addition to decision-making in public offices, public office was emphasized by civic participation in popular trials by lottery[62].ア リ ス ト テ レ スMade it important for democracy to experience both rule and obedience[62].. On the other hand, elections are an aristocratic system, and the modern democracy in which citizens delegate politics to representatives by largely incorporating the decision-making of representatives elected by the election also has a "free oligarchy" aspect. Yes, there is still a problem whether it can be called democracy, but the idea of ​​self-government by citizens has important meaning in the present age.[62].

Decision-making method

Democracy depends on all membersDecision makingTherefore, the method of consensus building is a matter of discussion both in the case of meetings by all members and in the case of parliament by representatives.

There are roughly the following decision methods.

  • Unanimous -Decide with the approval of all members or all attendees. In the principle of democracy, maximum legitimacy can be obtained. Although there is no concern about the tyranny of the majority, which is equivalent to each member having a veto right, persuasion and coordination are important, and it is difficult to form consensus in a bill that includes conflicts. (League of NationsGeneral Assembly / Board of Directors,United Nations Security Council Member OfVetoSuch)
  • Majority vote(Majority)-All members or all attendees decide with a majority. Efficient decision-making is possible, but the majority becomes a tyranny and the parliament becomes a mere corpse.The majority of the winners are divided into winners and losers. There are also concerns such as (Ancient Athenian civil society, normal legislation in many modern parliaments, etc.)
  • Majority vote (special majority)-All members or all attendees, with a specific number more than the majority. Adopted for the purpose of carefully making particularly important decisions (United Nations CharterProposal for revision[63],Rigid constitutionRevision, etc.)

In general, it is ideal to continue consensus, compromise, negotiations, etc. through discussions until a consensus is reached, but when it is difficult to collect opinions and a deadline is required, a majority vote is also adopted. However, the majority vote also becomes “tyranny by the majority” (Togwil), and especially in groups with low homogeneity such as class and ethnicity, if the majority and minority are fixed and the deliberation function in parliament deteriorates, democracy The whole integration function becomes a mere corpse.

Also, for free discussionFreedom of speech,Pluralism,DisclosureAs a premise, even if formally democraticNon-liberal democracyAlso called. From the perspective of liberalism and pluralism, it is sound that there are multiple opinions and there is room for discussion and choice, and it is possible that the present minority may become the majority in the future depending on persuasion and circumstances. That is necessary for the integrated function of parliament and democracy.

After discussions in ancient Athens, a majority vote was given if not settled. Montescue isBicameral systemArguing for a careful deliberation byUnicameral systemInsisted. In many modern constitutions, more than half the requirements for establishment and referendum requirements are stricter than the simple majority for important decisions such as constitutional amendments.

Relationship with dictatorship

Democracy, dictatorship and tyranny have historically been the subject of much debate. Since ancient timesDemocracyThere is an dictatorship system in an emergency in some of the cases, and there is also an argument that realization of the will of the people requires strong power including revolution and dictatorship. On the other hand, most dictator arguers argue for dictatorship, including defense of democracy in emergencies.

Ancient timesAthens OfDemocracyThen, in order to prevent the occurrence of dictatorshipExpulsion of ceramic piecesWas done.SocratesWas sentenced to death by a public trial by a citizen,Plato TheDemocracy ThePopular politicsThinking thatTetsujin politicsInsist,ア リ ス ト テ レ ス TheDemocracyI thought that if (republic, national politics) fell, it would become a royal government (predominant government).Republic of romeThen in an emergencyDictatorWas installed,CaesarBecame a dictator for life due to the popularity of the peopleImperial RomeLaid the foundation of.

On the rocks,MontescueTo prevent dictatorshipSeparation of powerInsisted thatRousseau TheDemocracyHe also argued that it was necessary to create compulsory power for this. Supporting the People in the French RevolutionJacobin school Fear politicsAndNapoleon BonaparteIs a Diet decisionReferendumThroughFrench emperorIt became ". AlsoBabuhu ThePerfect equalityTo realize societyPrivate property systemArguing for the abolition and dictatorship ofBlanki,Karl MarxInspired.Edmund BurkeCriticized the French RevolutionConservatismBecame the trend.

Marx is in the transition from capitalist society to socialist societyProletarian dictatorshipAffirmed the dictatorship as necessary, but believed that the dictatorship was not violent in the short term.[64].. Lenin criticized bourgeois democracy for fraud,Socialist revolutionLater, he noted that "the most complete democracy" would be realized,Russian RevolutionlaterOne-party dictatorshipand promised that a communist society would be realized in about 10 years, but withdrew the promise a year later.[64].. Became the successor of LeninJoseph StalinPut up a theory of intensifying class struggle, saying, "As socialist construction progresses, class strife also intensifies."Starlinism).Marx-LeninismRaiseSocialist country Theparty led by the Communist Partyis clearly stated in the Constitution, etc., and in factOne-party dictatorshipcalled.In addition, the Soviet Union, etc.One-party systemAgainstPeople's Republic of ChinaIsUnification Fronttheory-based multi-party system (Hegemony party system)People democracy(OrNew democracy)[65].

World War ILater called "the most democratic constitution in the world"Weimar ConstitutionUnderGermanyso,Adolf HitlerLeadNazi partyComplaining about the German national crisisJuly 1932 German Parliamentary electionsMade a big leap inReferendumso"PresidentIt became ". JuristCarl Schmittcriticized the post-World War I Weimar Republic, parliamentary democracy, and liberalism based on his own jurisprudence.He thought that democracy was to do politics that the people wanted, and he evaluated Adolf Hitler as the most democratic.Jewish GermanErich FrommIn 1941, while in exile in the United States, ``Modern society liberated the individual from the ties of pre-modern society and gave him a certain degree of stability, but at the same time, it allowed him to realize his own self, that is, to realize his intellectual and emotional well-being. Furthermore, freedom in the positive sense of expression of various sensory abilities has not yet been acquired, and instead has created uneasiness." of"Escape from freedomWas called[66].In the postwar Federal Republic of Germany, political parties that deny the liberal democratic system of fascism and communism are banned.[67].

Relationship with liberalism

The tense relationship between democracy, which means control by the majority, and liberalism, which respects individual freedom to the maximum extent, has been repeatedly emphasized since the French Revolution.[68].Banjaman Constant,Alexi de Tocqueville,John Stuart MillFreedom to protect individual freedom from the pressure of "democracy" (the majority controlling politics in the name of), which gradually increased its power and secured even moral and intellectual authority. The discussion was developed from the viewpoint of principle (Liberal democracy). On the other handCarl SchmittIt is,Jean-Jacques Rousseau OfGeneral intentionIn light of this, democracy eventually leads to a series ofGerman: Identity), the liberalism and parliament, which are based on the pluralism of values, are an impediment to democracy. (People's sovereign decision/dictatorship)Indirect democracy)National vote,National idea(Direct democracy) Claimed[68].

public opinion and mob politics

Since democracy is a decision-making by the members (people, people, people),public opinion, Public opinion, the will of the people, the will of the people) should be reflected, but there is debate about whether it is correct or appropriate, and whether public opinion exists and can be presented.

Plato said democracyPopular politicsI thought I would fall intoMachiavelli and Hitler thought the masses were stupid.Locke, Montesquieu, and Jefferson warned against tyranny by the majority from the viewpoint of liberalism, and argued that the separation of powers was necessary.

James BryceIn his book "Modern Democratic Politics", in modern democracy "public opinion" was the standard that politics had to obey. AlsoJean-Jacques RousseaubyGeneral intentionIs also an idealized public opinion[69].

But in the United States it started with election predictionpoll1922 Walter LippmanIs a work "public opinion], the public opinion isPrejudicebyStereotypeInfluenced by intellectual thinking,Mass mediaActually consciously and unconsciously select information to promote mass stereotypic thinking, and public opinion is easily manipulated and changed.[69].. On the other handPaul RuthersfeldIs a book "People's Choices" in which the influence of the mass media on voters is not direct,Opinion leaderHe said he will form his own will through personal communication with[69].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Article numbers are serial numbers, not by edition.
  2. ^ Good politics, including free translationDemocracy, Bad politicsPopular politicsThere is also a source (Asaba p57, etc.).


  1. ^ "Democracy Index 2017 – Economist Intelligence Unit". EIU.com.As of August 2018, 2originalMore archives.April 2018, 2Browse.
  2. ^ Democracy-Kotobank (Britanica International Encyclopedia Sub-item Encyclopedia), (Selected Japanese Language Dictionary), (Encyclopedia Nipponica), (Encyclopedia Mypedia)
  3. ^ Matsumura 2019c, p. "Democracy".
  4. ^ Britannica Japan 2019, p. "Democracy".
  5. ^ Matsumura 2019a, p. "Modern society".
  6. ^ Matsumura 2019b, p. "Civil Society".
  7. ^ Shogakkan Japanese Dictionary Editor 2019a, p. "Modern society".
  8. ^ Heibonsha 2019, p. "Democracy".
  9. ^ Demokratia, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, "A Greek-English Lexicon", at Perseus
  10. ^ Sugita p14
  11. ^ "Toitsu Nippou: Mistranslation that changed history-'Democracy'". Unified Daily Report. April 2022, 7Browse.
  12. ^ "Democratism: Explaining International Politics with Democracy Beyond the State (New Horizons in International Relations series)”(Japanese). Kinokuniya Bookstore Web Store | Online Bookstore | Book, Magazine Mail Order, Ebook Store. April 2022, 7Browse.
  13. ^ In this section, Chen Liwei, "Democracy" and "Republic" (Seijo University Economic Research 2011.11)[1][2]for the purpose of explaining the history of the word "democracy".
  14. ^ a b c d Uno p194-195
  15. ^ Grassroots democracy-Kotobank
  16. ^ Masamori Sase, "Is West Germany Fighting Democracy Weimar Far?" PHP Institute, p167, 1979.ISBN 978 – 4569203171.
  17. ^ a b Uno p28-29
  18. ^ a b Uno p15-43
  19. ^ Asaba p60-61
  20. ^ Asaba p64
  21. ^ Asaba p65-66
  22. ^ Asaba p66-67
  23. ^ a b Asaba p68-71
  24. ^ Kozo Yamamoto, "XNUMX Constitution (XNUMX) translation"Doshisha Law, Vol. 11, No. 4, Doshisha Law, 124-136, January 1960, 1,NOT 110000400935
  25. ^ Kozo Yamamoto, "Constitution of XNUMX (translation)"Doshisha Law, Vol. 11, No. 6, Doshisha Law, 103-112, January 1960, 3,NOT 110000400948
  26. ^ The Polity IV project
  27. ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 62 Resolution 7. Support by the United Nations system of the efforts of Governments to promote and consolidate new or restored democracies A / RES / 62/7 page 3. 8 November 2007. Retrieved 2008-08-23.
  28. ^ a b (I.e. p15-21
  29. ^ Tukidides Death History (Kubo MasaakiTranslation,Iwanami library) Volume 2, 37, 41
  30. ^ a b Nogami p30-46
  31. ^ "The path for democracy to fall into dictatorship was pointed out 2400 years ago: Asahi Shimbun GLOBE +”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun GLOBE +. April 2022, 4Browse.
  32. ^ a b (I.e. p31-36
  33. ^ a b Uno p15-22
  34. ^ a b Nogami p148-150
  35. ^ Nogami p131-132
  36. ^ a b Uno p32-36
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Uyama
  38. ^ Nogami p12
  39. ^ a b (I.e. p40-44
  40. ^ Asaba p62-63
  41. ^ "UK in the Georgian Age" by Georges Minowa Translated by Ririko Tezuka and Takasuke Tezuka Shiramizusha Bunko Kuseju 2004/10/10 p.8
  42. ^ a b Asaba p63-65
  43. ^ #Nakazato p185-201
  44. ^ a b (I.e. p45
  45. ^ #Nakazato p206-211
  46. ^ a b Asaba p65-66
  47. ^ Nogami p66-69
  48. ^ Asaba p75
  49. ^ Asaba p75-76
  50. ^ a b Nogami p55-58
  51. ^ Nogami p95
  52. ^ "State and Revolution"-Encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika), Encyclopedia of the World, etc.
  53. ^ Vladimir Lenin "State and Revolution" Chapter 3
  54. ^ Vladimir Lenin "State and Revolution" Chapter 1
  55. ^ a b Asaba p80-81
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h Asaba p80-89
  57. ^ a b c Asaba p86-89
  58. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Asaba p89-97
  59. ^ a b c d e f Asaba p122-143
  60. ^ Asaba p149-158
  61. ^ a b Saeki p103-109
  62. ^ a b c Uno p20
  63. ^ Revision of the UN Charter-United Nations Information Center
  64. ^ a b Asaba "Right and Left" p88-92
  65. ^ XNUMXnd edition, World Encyclopedia References, Nihon Encyclopedia (Nipponica), Selected Edition Japanese Dictionary, Obunsha World History Encyclopedia XNUMXrd Edition, Encyclopedia Mypedia, Digital Encyclopedia, World Encyclopedia.What is People's Democracy”(Japanese). Koto bank. April 2022, 8Browse.
  66. ^ Subsection Encyclopedia, Encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponica), International Encyclopedia Britannica.what is an escape from freedom”(Japanese). Koto bank. April 2022, 8Browse.
  67. ^ Legal Doctrine of Prohibition of Political Parties in the Federal Republic of Germany Waseda University
  68. ^ a b Schmidt p114-125
  69. ^ a b c Asaba p159-164


  • Shogakukan Japanese Dictionary Editorial Department "Modern Society" "Selected Edition Japanese Dictionary" 2019.  Selected edition Japanese language dictionary "Modern society』- Koto bank
  • Shogakukan Japanese Dictionary Editorial Department "Democracy" "Selected Edition Japanese Dictionary" 2019.  Selected edition Japanese language dictionary "Democracy』- Koto bank
  • Britannica Japan "Democracy" "Britanica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia" 2019.  Britannica International Encyclopedia Small Item Encyclopedia "Democracy』- Koto bank
  • Heibonsha "Democracy" "Encyclopedia Mypedia" 2019.  Encyclopedia Mypedia "Democracy』- Koto bank

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